Web         Gaudiya Discussions
Gaudiya Discussions Archive » BIOGRAPHIES
Biographies of various saints.

Sri Jayadeva Gosvami -

Madhava - Fri, 24 Jan 2003 04:48:22 +0530

user posted image

Jayadeva was born at Kenduvilva (presently Kenduli) village in the district of Birbhum around the 11th century. According to Vanamali dasa, the author of Jayadevacaritra, and a disciple of Srinivasa Acarya, Jayadeva was alive in the 15th century. It would therefore, seem that the author was not aware of the contemporary historical events during Jayadeva’s lifetime. It is recorded (in an ancient manuscript of Gita Govinda) that Jayadeva was a court pandita during the reign of Raja Laksmana Sena of Gauda. Evidently, Jayadeva was of a much earlier period.

Alamkarasekhara, which was written at the command of Raja Manikyacandra, the last ruler of Gauda before the Muslims conquered Delhi, mentions that Jayadeva was a court poet of the Raja of Utkaladesa.

Bhaktimahatmya in Sanskrit, and also Bhaktamala, provide information on Jayadeva as follows: At an early age Jayadeva embraced vairagya and migrated to Purusottama ksetra, where he lived by offering seva to Purusottama. Lord Jagannatha was pleased by Jayadeva’s bhakti-bhava. The ruler of Orissa was also extremely fond of him. Jayadeva gave diksa to some of his disciples there.

A certain brahmana, who had no issue, worshiped Lord Jagannatha and was blessed with a daughter. After the daughter, who was named Padmavati, grew up, the brahmana took her to Purusottama and offered her to the Lord. The brahmana then received a command from the Lord: “One of my sevaka named Jayadeva has renounced home and has dedicated himself to My service. Go and offer your daughter to him.” The brahmana went to Jayadeva’s place along with Padmavati and after explaining the command of Lord Purusottama he requested Jayadeva to accept Padmavati as his wife. Although Jayadeva refused to marry her, the brahmana left Padmavati with Jayadeva and returned home. Jayadeva was very embarrassed and asked Padmavati, “Where do you wish to go? Come with me and I shall take you there, because you cannot stay here.” With a pathetic voice the girl answered, “At the command of Lord Jagannatha my father has offered me to you, you are my husband, my life. Even if you forsake me, I shall not leave you but serve at your feet to the best of my ability.” Jayadeva had no other alternative but to marry Padmavati and become a householder again. He then installed a Deity of Narayana in the house.

With the passage of time Jayadeva’s attachment for Krishna increased and while floating on the waves of Krishna -prema he composed the book of verses entitled Gitagovinda. While Jayadeva was writing this book he had described various rasas and bhavas within his writings yet it still lacked the touch of khandita-madhura-rasa. However, at one point he did not have the courage to depict Sri Krishna , the Jagatpati, Paramapurusa, touching the feet of Radhika, the Prakriti. One day, while Jayadeva had gone out for his routine bath in the sea, Lord Jagannatha Himself, taking the form of Jayadeva, came into the room and wrote down the verse “Dehipadapallavamudaram” in Jayadeva’s manuscript book. Padmavati, who was surprised to see Jayadeva (Lord Jagannatha) had returned so quickly from taking his bath, said, “What is the matter? You just left a few minutes ago, why have you returned so soon?” Sri Krishna, in the guise of Jayadeva said, “While on my way to the sea, a thought occurred to me, I didn’t want to forget it so I came back to note it down.”

Soon after Sri Krishna had disappeared, Jayadeva returned from his bath. Padmavati was shocked to see Jayadeva return again so quickly and in her confusion said, “You went for your bath and soon came back to write something down in your book and left again just a few minutes ago. How could you finish your bath within such a short time and return home? I would like to know who was that person who came here to write something down in your book and who are you actually?” Jayadeva, understanding the significance of the incident narrated by Padmavati, at once went inside and quickly opened the book and the divine writing revealed the presence of his Sri Krishna . He felt such ecstasy of love that tears rolled down over his chest. He then called his wife and said, “You are the most fortunate person because you have attained the goal of your birth. You had the darsana of Sri Krishna, and I am such a fallen soul that I have been deprived of the darsana of His manifested Self.”

The fame of Gitagovinda spread far and wide. Bhaktas and bhavukas all became overjoyed to hear the song recitals from Gitagovinda. It is said (Visvakosh), that one day a woman gardener was singing verses from Gitagovinda while seated in her garden, when Lord Jagannatha, charmed by the music, arrived there to listen to it. As a result the Lord’s body was covered with dirt and thorns. When Utkalaraja went into the temple he noticed the marks of dirt etc. on the Deity of Lord Jagannatha and immediately called for an explanation from the attendants. The Lord explained the episode of His going to the garden to hear the music of the malini. The Raja at once sent his men to bring the malini before him. The Raja then listened to the musical verses of Gitagovinda rendered by her. The descendants of this malini recite verses from Gitagovinda regularly in the temple of Lord Jagannatha in Puri even today. Greatly appreciating Jayadeva’s work, the Utkalaraja wrote a book himself under the same title and offered it at the lotus feet of Lord Jagannatha. However, Lord Purusottama picked up the book written by the Raja and threw it away, leaving Jayadeva’s Gitagovinda as it is. The incident hurt the Raja so deeply that he decided to jump into the sea and commit suicide. However, Lord Jagannatha appeared on the scene and prevented him from doing so. The Lord pacified the Raja, assuring him that 12 slokas composed by the Raja would be included at the beginning of the book Gitagovinda written by Jayadeva. Since then, verses from Gitagovinda are recited daily at the temple of Lord Jagannatha-Puri.

Radhamadhava always took great care of His Jayadeva. It is recorded in Bhaktamala that once Jayadeva was repairing the roof of his cottage during a hot summer afternoon. Lord Hari took pity upon him and to minimized the sufferings of His devotee Jayadeva, The Lord Himself began to drill holes in the covering sheets and pass them to Jayadeva, who was happily thinking that it was his wife Padmavati helping him. However, when he came down after finishing the job he did not find anyone there. Jayadeva realized that he must have been helped by his ever merciful Lord Hari and thus he offered humble prayers to the Lord with renewed devotion. On another occasion Radhamadhava, in the guise of Jayadeva, partook of rice bhoga prepared by Padmavati.

Once Jayadeva set out for raising funds for seva and utsava of Radhamadhava from different states. Some dacoits waylaid him and, after looting all his belongings, cut off his limbs and threw Jayadeva’s body in a well. A certain Raja, during his sikara rounds, happened to pass that way, when he heard someone chanting the name of Sri Krishna from inside a well. The Raja then rescued Jayadeva and took him in his own palanquin to the palace. At the advice of Jayadeva, the Raja introduced daily Vaisnava-seva at his palace. One day, the gang of dacoits that had robbed Jayadeva, arrived at the palace disguised as Vaisnavas. Jayadeva recognised them, yet made special arrangements to look after their comfort. Fearing that Jayadeva would take revenge on them and have them killed, the dacoits attempted to escape without success because the royal guards would not allow them to leave the palace without the permission of Jayadeva.

However, Jayadeva, having read their minds, made arrangements to pay them sufficient money and had them escorted to a safe place. After traveling some distance, the dacoits took leave of the royal guards saying, “We were employed by a certain Raja to kill Jayadeva. We had cut off his limbs and threw him in a well. He has now come to your palace and become a fraud mahanta. To avoid being detected, Jayadeva paid us money to get rid of us. The dacoits had hardly finished their statement when all of them dropped flat on the ground as if hit by some unseen force. On their return to the palace, the guards narrated the episode before the Raja. Jayadeva then explained the factual incident involving the dacoits and added, “One should be kind even towards evil souls. That is why I showed respect to the dacoits by offering money instead of doing harm to them.”

The Maharani and Padmavati had developed a close friendly relationship through constant association. One day the Rani, while discussing the subject of shamarana with Padmavati, began to lament thinking of her own self. Padmavati explained that after the death of a husband, the wife becomes lifeless. The Rani remembered this remark and in order to test the truthfulness of Padmavati, the Rani one day arranged to circulate a false rumor that Jayadeva was dead. Padmavati, true wife that she was, passed away as soon as she heard the news of her husband’s death. Later, Jayadeva brought Padmavati back to life by chanting the holy name in her ear.

At that point Jayadeva felt a desire to visit Vrindavana. Taking his Deity Radhamadhava with him he went to Vrindavana and stayed at Kesighata for some time. A certain wealthy devotee, charmed by Radhamadhava, constructed a temple at Kesighata, where the Deity of Radhamadhava was installed. After Jayadeva passed away, the Maharaja of Jaipur took Radhamadhava away with him and had it re-installed at a place called Ghati in Jaipur.

During the last stage of his life, Jayadeva returned to his home at Kenduli village and lived there till the end. It is said (Visvakosh) that Jayadeva used to go for a bath in the Ganges daily about 36 miles away from Kenduli. One day he was unable to go and felt disturbed about it. However, to alleviate the distress of her devotee, Gangadevi, came roaring in a stream up to Kenduli village.

Jayadeva breathed his last at Kenduli village and in his memory a mela is held every year on the day of Magha-sankranti. More than fifty thousand devotees attend this mela yearly.

Jayadeva’s Gitagovinda is considered an invaluable asset by one and all. The book has been translated into Hindi, Bengali, Odiya, Assamese and also into many other foreign languages. The following persons have written tika’s on Gitagovinda: 1) Udayanacarya, 2) Kamalakara, 3) Kumbhakarna Mahendra, 4) Krishna datta, 5) Krishna dasa, 6) Gopala, 7) Caitanyadasa, 8) Narayana Bhatta, 9) Narayanadasa, 10) Pitamvara, 11) Bhagavad dasa, 12) Bhavacarya, 13) Mananka, 14) Ramatarana, 15) Ramadatta, 16) Rupadeva Pandita, 17) Laksmana Bhatta, 18) Laksmana Suri, 19) Vanamali Bhatta, 20) Viththala Diksita, 21) Visvesvara Bhatta, 22) Sankara Misra, 23) Sriharsa, 24) Hridayavarana and others. Besides this, two books of tika entitled Valavodini and Vacanamalika by some unknown authors are also available on Gitagovinda. (Visvakosh Vol. VI p. 663-665)

(From, adapted from Gaudiya Vaishnava Abhidhana and other sources)
anuraag - Fri, 24 Jan 2003 05:54:59 +0530
Jaya Sri Radhey! Namaste.

Happy celebration of Sri Jayadeva Vardhanti.

Here is the Uttukadu Venkatasubbier song in praise of
the Rasik Saint Sri Jayadeva:

Kirtana : padmAvati ramaNam...
rAgA: pUrvikalyANi.
tripuTa tALA.

pallavi: padmAvati ramaNam jayadEva kavirAja bhOja dEva suta
padmapAda smaraNam guru mAnasa (padmAvati)

anupallavi: yatgOpi vadanEndu pada candra cakOram shrI (padmAvati)


kindu bilva sadanam ati ati divya mangaLam vadanam
sundarAnga shubha shObhita madanam sumukhi ramAdEvi priyakara sutanam
saha paNDita samUhasEvyam shata manmata jita mahanIyam satata
krSNa prEma rasamaghna samAna rahita gIta gOvinda kAvyam (padmAvati)

More invocation (Mangala Caranam) verses from:

.. giitagovindam.h ..

.. shrii gopaalaka dhyaanam.h ..

yallakshmiikuchashaatakuMbha kalashe vyaagochamindiivaram.h .
yannirvaaNavidhaanasaadhanavidhau siddhaaJNjanaM yoginaaM
tannashyaamaLamaavirastu hR^idaye kR^ishhNaabhidhaanaM mahaH .. 1..

.. shrii jayadeva dhyaanam.h ..

gaanaamR^itaikabhaNitaM kaviraajaraajam.h .
padmaavatiipriyatamaM praNatosmi nityam.h .. 2..

shriigopalavilaasinii valayasadratnaadimugdhaakR^iti
shriiraadhaapatipaadapadmabhajanaanandaabdhimagno.anisham.h ..
loke satkaviraajaraaja iti yaH khyaato dayaambhonidhiH
taM vande jayadevasadgurumahaM padmaavatiivallabham.h .. 3..
anuraag - Fri, 24 Jan 2003 06:23:07 +0530
Jaya Sri Radhey! Namaste.

I like to share some Nectar from delicious Spring song,
'aSTapadi. 3' of 'Gita Govinda Kavya' composed by
the Rasik Saint, Sad-Guru Sri Jayadeva Kavi Rajaraja.

Raga- Vasanta

lalita-lavaìga-latä-pariçélana-komala-malaya-samére |
madhukara-nikara-karambita-kokila-küjita-kuïja-kuöére ||

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante
nåtyati yuvaté-janena samaà sakhi virahi-janasya durante ||

unmada-madana-manoratha-pathika-vadhü-jana-janita-viläpe |
ali-kula-saìkula-kusuma-samüha-niräkula-bakula-kaläpe ||

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante
nåtyati yuvaté-janena samaà sakhi virahi-janasya durante ||

måga-mada-saurabha-rabhasa-vaçaàvada-nava-dala-mäla-tamäle |
yuva-jana-hådaya-vidäraëa-manasija-nakha-ruci-kiàçuka-jäle ||

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante
nåtyati yuvaté-janena samaà sakhi virahi-janasya durante ||

madana-mahépati-kanaka-daëòa-ruci-keçara-kusuma-vikäçe |
milita-çili-mukha-päöala-paöala-kåta-smara-tüëa-viläse ||

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante
nåtyati yuvaté-janena samaà sakhi virahi-janasya durante ||

virahi-nikåntana-kunta-mukhäkåti-ketaka-danturitäçe ||

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante
nåtyati yuvaté-janena samaà sakhi virahi-janasya durante ||

mädhavika-parimala-lalite nava-mälati-jäti-sugandhau |
muni-manasäm api mohana-käréëi taruëäkäraëa-bandhau ||

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante
nåtyati yuvaté-janena samaà sakhi virahi-janasya durante ||

sphurad-atimukta-latä-parirambhana-muku1ita-pulakita-cüte |
våndävana-vépine parésara-parigata-yamunä-jala-püte ||

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante
nåtyati yuvaté-janena samaà sakhi virahi-janasya durante ||

çré-jayadeva-bhaëitam idam udayati hari-caraëa-småti-säram |
sarasa-vasanta-samaya-vana-varëanam anugata-madana-vikäram ||

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante
nåtyati yuvaté-janena samaà sakhi virahi-janasya durante ||

Translation by B. S. Miller :-

Joyful Krishna

When spring came, tender-limbed Radha wandered
Like a flowering creeper in the forest wilderness,
Seeking Krishna in his many haunts.

The god of love increased her ordeal,
Tormenting her with fevered thoughts,
And her friend sang to heighten the mood.

*** The Third Song, sung in Raga "Vasanta" ***

user posted image
Soft sandal mountain winds caress quivering vines of clove,
Forest huts hum with droning bees and crying cuckoos.

When spring's mood is rich, Hari roams here
To dance with young women, friend-

A cruel time for deserted lovers.

Lonely wives of travelers whine in love's mad fantasies.
Bees swarm over flowers clustered to fill mimosa branches.

When spring's mood is rich, Hari roams here
To dance with young women, friend-

A cruel time for deserted lovers.

Tamala trees' fresh leaves absorb strong scents of deer musk.
Flame-tree petals, shining nails of Love, tear at young hearts.

When spring's mood is rich, Hari roams here
To dance with young women, friend-

A cruel time for deserted lovers.

Gleaming saffron flower pistils are golden scepters of Love.
Trumpet flowers like wanton bees are arrows in Love's quiver.

When spring's mood is rich, Hari roams here
To dance with young women, friend-

A cruel time for deserted lovers.

Tender buds bloom into laughter as creatures abandon modesty.
Cactus spikes pierce the sky to wound deserted lovers.

When spring's mood is rich, Hari roams here
To dance with young women, friend-

A cruel time for deserted lovers.

Scents of twining creepers mingle with perfumes of fresh
Intimate bonds with young things bewilder even hermit hearts.

When spring's mood is rich, Hari roams here
To dance with young women, friend-

A cruel time for deserted lovers.

Budding mango trees tremble from the embrace of rising vines.
Brindaban forest is washed by meandering Jumna river waters.

When spring's mood is rich, Hari roams here
To dance with young women, friend-

A cruel time for deserted lovers.

Jayadeva's song evokes the potent memory of Hari's feet,
Coloring the forest, in springtime mood heightened by Love's

When spring's mood is rich, Hari roams here
To dance with young women, friend-

A cruel time for deserted lovers.

Wind perfumes the forests with fine pollen
Shaken loose from newly blossomed jasmine
As it blows Love's cactus-fragrant breath
To torture every heart it touches here.

Crying sounds of cuckoos, mating on mango shoots
Shaken as bees seek honey scents of opening buds,
Raise fever in the ears of lonely travelers -

Somehow they survive these days
By tasting the mood of lovers' union
In climaxing moments of meditation.

To listen to the 'Spring song' just Go to this Web location:

For More Video recordings of 'Gita Govinda' visit:
anuraag - Fri, 24 Jan 2003 06:43:13 +0530
Jaya Sri Radhey!

A few sublime verses from Gita-Govinda kavya of Sri Jayadeva
glorifying Maha Raasa lila of Lord Krishna and Gopis:

.. prathamaH sargaH ..

.. giitam.h 4..

chandanacharchita niilakalevara piitavasana vanamaalii .
kelichalan maNikuNDalamaNDita gaNDayuga smitashaalii ..

harir iha mugdha vadhuu nikare
vilaasini vilasati kelipare .. 1..

user posted image

shrii jayadevakaveridam adbhuta keshava kelirahasyam.h .
vR^indaavana vipine lalitaM vitanotu shubhaani yashasyam.h .. 8..
anuraag - Fri, 24 Jan 2003 21:36:59 +0530
Jaya Sri Radhey! Namaste.

user posted image
nibhRta nikuJja gRham gatayA nizi rahasi nilIya vasantham,
cakita vilokita sakala dizA rati rabhasa bhareNa hasantam.

sakhi he! kezi mathanam udAraM,
ramaya mayA saha madana manoratha bhAvitayA savikAram.

prathama samAgama lajjitayA paTu cATu zatair anukUlam,
mRdu madhura smita bhASitayA zithilIkRta jaghana dukUlam.

sakhi he! kezi mathanam udAraM,
ramaya mayA saha madana manoratha bhAvitayA savikAram.

- Gita Govinda Kavya by Rasik Saint Sri Jayadeva Kaviraja Raja
anuraag - Wed, 29 Jan 2003 20:46:51 +0530
Jaya Sri Radhey! Namaste.

user posted image
The Rasiksaint Sri Jayadeva Kaviraja raja said in the words of
Lord Krishna Who Himself completed the sublime verse of 'Gita Govind' -

Dashama Sarga
giitam.h 19..

tvamasi mama bhUSaNaM tvamasi mama jIvanaM
tvamasi bhavajaladhi ratnam.h .
bhavatu bhavatIha mayi satatamanurodhinI
tatra mama hRdayam atiyatnam.h .. 3..

smaragaralakhaNDanaM mama zirasi maNDanaM
dehi padapallavam udAram.h .

jvalati mayi dAruNo madanakadanAruNo
haratu tad upAhita vikAram.h .. 7..
anuraag - Wed, 29 Jan 2003 21:13:21 +0530
Jaya Sri Radhey!

user posted image
More glories of 'Gita Govind Kavya' of Sri Jayadeva:

Jayadeva, the twelfth century poet, was a contemporary of several
other poets in the court of Lakshmana Sena of Bengal, and even at a
young age he attained fame for skill in composing verses in Sanskrit
with apt words, as per his own statement in the introductory verses
to Gitagovinda.

He further says there that his mind has been made the
residence of Goddess of Learning and he was the king who made the
feet of Padamavati dance to his tunes and beats. The legend goes that
Padmavati was the temple dancer at the Puri Jagannath temple and
Jayadeva married her and settled down there to serve the Lord and
Padmavati simultaneously.

This tradition of Devadasi Dance is being
continued at Lord Jagannath Temple to this day.

This aspect also is discernible in his
introductory verse wherein he says that those
interested in
Hari smarana and those finding pleasure in love sports
may read his Gitagovinda kayva.

The Gitagovinda kayva is a lyrical poem, dramatizing the love sports
of Krishna and Radha on the surface and conveying simultaneously the
deep ethos of devotion of the individual soul, its pining for God
realization and finally attaining the consummation in service of God.
This Bhava is similar in both god realization and eroticism and the
cloak fits in well.

Since the Gitagovinda was composed specifically for dance performance
during the night worship of Lord Jagannatha, the composition is so
deftly made as to be sung to the beats of a dancer's foot movements.

The author himself at the end of the Kavya again states this fact,
where he again emphasizes that the poem is
intended to be a prop for meditation on Vishnu and it is clothed in
Srngara rasa by the kavi Jayadeva pandita immersed in the
contemplation of Krishna.

The poem became so popular that within a century or so, it spread to all corners of the country from east to south, west and north and was adapted to dance, music, painting and temple worship.

The Gitagovinda consist of twelve chapter, further divided into
twenty-four songs. Each song consists of eight couplets, it is called
Ashtapadi. Chapter one and chapter two, four five and twelve contain
two ashtapadi each; chapters three, six, eight, nine and ten contain
only one ashtapadi each.

Thus there are twenty-four ashtapadis.
These ashtapadis can be set to music in different melodious ragas,
which were appreciated and followed by the poets later period. On
which more than hundred commentaries has been written in Sanskrit and
over fifty more than hundred commentaries have been written in
Sanskrit and over fifty in regional languages in India also in many
foreign languages.

In this multimedia production, a limited verses were chosen and
discussed from literary point of view are shown as applied in music
and dance and their renderings in temples, depicting of Madhura bhava
of devotion and how an adept poet can adopt profane ideas to profound
height of devotion.

The first song has four introductory verses, followed by eleven
ashtapadi that describe the purpose of the ten avataras of Vishnu and
at the end prostrations are offered for unhindered completion of the
work. This is followed by another ashtapadi where the hero of the
work is hailed. Here the author has indicated that this ashtapadi is
Mangalam - benedictive verse.

In the third song the spring season is described with its
multifarious features like pleasant smelling and cool winds, and
sweet sounds of the bees and cuckoos been thinking of Krishna was
being led by her maiden friend to these bowers where Krishna can be
found. In this hope Radha follows her friend.

In the fourth song, the poet describes the delightful dance of love
of Krishna with all gopis in the dark forest of Vrndavana. All the
gopis surround him, embracing him with joy and caress him
passionately and he praises them hugging one, kissing another
passionately, glancing at another and smiling with other maiden in
love. Jayadeva says that in reality, Krishna was bestowing bliss on

In the eleventh song, the poet describes the vipralambha srngara.
Krishna the God of Love is waiting Radha on the bank of river Yamuna.
The poet compares the embrace of Radha and Krishna with the lightning
and the black cloud and with white crane and dark cloud.

In the twelfth song, the poet describes the pain and distress of
Radha on the separation of impertinent Krishna. Seeing the condition
of Radha sitting in her bower unable to move, filled by passion and
setting her mind on Krishna all the time.

The sakhi goes to Krishna
to tell of the state of madness Radha, who sees him everywhere,
before her mind's eye and she is alive just with the only memory of
her lover. The sakhi request him to go quickly to meet Radha; who is
waiting fully decked for the arrival of Krishna.