Translations of various devotional texts.
BrahmaStuti: Praise of Lord by Brahma - Prof. Rama Bandyapadhyaya
dasanudas - Mon, 08 Aug 2005 08:20:05 +0530
The king of scripture Srimad Bhagavatam is full of praise of Lord Sri Govinda. But in the tenth scanda, fourteenth chapter where Brahma is glorifying Lord has different significance. This section has forty sloka, and in these sloka almost all the excusive conclusions of Vaishanava Philosophy has been offered. Thus BrahmaStuti it can be called a self-sufficient scripture by itself. Professor Rama Bandyapadhaya is a famous elderly devotee and scholar of Navadwipa, and a direct disciple of Srimad Ramdas Babaji Maharaj. She has dedicated her entire life to Sri Guru Vaishanava seva. She even has donated her entire properties to the service of Sri Govinda. She has written numerous books. Her writings was being regularly published to “SriSudarshan” magazine. She was writing regularly the explanation of “Praise of Lord by Brahma” under the name of article “BrahmaStuti”. Later by the mercy of Sri Gurudeva and other devotees it was published as complete book named as “BrahmaStuti”. I found this is very interesting and a great guide to devotee, because of its simple but thoughtful explanation based on the scripture. Here she has explained tough verse from scripture in very simple and useful manner to devotee. That is why I felt the urge to translate in English and present this to greater audience. Anybody if feels a serious interest for translation and publication of this book in among the western devotee, he can take the mantle from me, then I would think my purpose is successful. Interested person can contact Srimati Rama Bandyapadhyaya by mail at:
WestBengal , India
PS. I did not follow HK protocol for snaksKrit verse, as I am not much conversant with it. Probably in future I may want to try.
(Updated MS Word formatted document can be found here)
dasanudas - Mon, 08 Aug 2005 08:23:00 +0530
BrahmaStuti: Praise of Lord By Brahma
From Srimad Bhagavatam
Explanation by Prof. Srimati Rama Bandyapadhyaya
BrahmaStuti – speaker of Veda, Bakpati, Lokpitamaha (great great grandfather) Brahma, the creator is praising Sri BalGopal. There is another identity of Brahma as he was born from the lotus naval root of Sri Bhagawan; he is regarded as son and also as disciple of Sri Bhagawan Vaikunthanatha, as Sri Bhagavan taught chatusloki Bhagavatam to Brahma. Brahma is also father of Debarshi Narada, Sanakadi Rishi. This praise of Sri Bhagavan by Brahma is cream essence of all Vedas. In this praise all exclusive conclusions (Sidhantas) of Bhagavata dharma, Vaishnava dharma has been revealed in proper manner.
Here Brahma praised Lord wholeheartedly, by lowering himself lower than blade of grass, as an honor less, pride less devotee (cutting the blade of grass by teeth) with melting heart. Though primarily remains silent, Lord also relishes this praise from deep of his mind. Sri Bhagavan has habit in listening praise by devotee, and devotees are also familiar to praise Lord. This Brahma has praised Lord also in other circumstances, as he did during ‘garvaStuti’ (when Lord was in his mother womb) during birth Lila of Krishna, also in eleven-skanda sixth chapter when Brahma came with other demigods to remind Lord that it is the time to go back to his abode. But in those circumstances Brahma did not laud Lord in such tune, where this kind of humility, self surrender to lord’s lotus feet, heartfelt devotion were absent, as Brahma tried to maintain social protocol and status of demigods in those cases. Here by the blessing of Sri Guru we will try to relish our present subject of discussion “BrahmaStuti” - praise of Lord by Brahma that is present in tenth-skanda and fourteenth chapter of Srimad Bhagavatam
The reason behind this praise of Brahma is a unique incident i.e. BrahmaMohan Lila of Sri Bhagavan. Brahma also could not understand Krishna Tattva (true identity of Krishna). By seeing Krishna at the dress of cowherd Brahma doubted Krishna as supreme Godhead. That happened after killing of Aghasur.
When in Braja Lila Brajarajnandan Krishna killed Aghasur, Krishna has not come out yet from the body of Aghasur with his cowherd friends – and spirit of Aghasur was waiting outside for Krishna, to merge with His lotus feet. And subsequently Aghasur achieved salvation. This was obvious, since he received the divine touch of Sri Bhagavan, his liberation was certain.
dasanudas - Mon, 08 Aug 2005 08:26:58 +0530
Sukhadeb Goswami said in Srimad Bhagavatam-
SakrD jadanGyaPratimaNtyaRahita MonoMayaii BhagaBatim daDau gaTim |
SwaEba niTyaTmyaSukhanuBhuTyaBhibudasTyaMayoHantyaGartya Hi Kim||
- Srimad Bhagavatam 10/12/39
If for once or even by force somebody meditates on the Name, Lila and Beauty of Sri Bhagavan, Krishna mercifully grants him destiny same as of Maha Bhagavat (great devotee).
Four headed (Chaturanan) Brahma observed fate of Aghasur from his adobe and thus questions arose within his mind, why spirit of Aghasur has merged within feet of Krishna? As Spirit of jiva can only merge with Sri Bhagawan, Supreme Lord, nowhere else, then why in Krishna? By looking at Krishna nobody would believe he is supreme Lord. There are no symptoms of Supreme Lord within Krishna by his external appearance. Look at him - his flute is firmly tied with his cloth near the waist, the stick for herding is placed under his left arm, morsel of rice mixed with yogurt at his left hand with fruits within the gap of fingers – and Krishna is busy in doing herding with his friends. How would he become Supreme Lord, Sri Bhagavan?
Thus Brahma became skeptic about Krishna – now what has caused this doubt in Brahma’s mind? The answer is paramount pride. With the presence of pride nobody can understand the tattva (knowledge, wisdom) of Supreme Lord that is why even by experiencing Krishna before his own eyes, Brahma is not able to understand Krishna tattva. This reason being, pride, fame, profit, respect and distinction prevent realization of God. That is why great saint warns us – “Path of devotion is full of obstacles and very slippery, with slight lack of concentration one may fear to fall down by committing offence”.
That is why Upanishad tells us –
“TadduRe taddantiKe chaw” –
Lord is very far for those with false pride and desiring for fame – but he is very near and dear to his humble devotee. That is why in the process of worshiping Sri Hari it is prescribed to chant his name by following the rule –
AbhiManam SuraPanam Gouravam sudhdha Raurabam
Pratistha sukari bistha triNi taktwa HariM Bhajet”
By hating pride as much as liquor, considering fame to be abandon like hell (Narak or Rourav) and by thinking distinction as untouchable as stool of pig, one should chant name of Sri Hari
dasanudas - Mon, 08 Aug 2005 08:28:20 +0530
Sriman Mahaprabhu also instructs in his third verse of Shikshastaka –
Trinadapi Sunichena Taruribo Sahisnuna |
Amanina manidena kirtaniya sadaH Hari||
To become lower than blade of grass: When somebody walks over the grass, grass lowers his head, and after that again it raises his face. But one, who wants to chant the name of Sri Hari desiring the attainment of Prema, does not have any right to uplift his face at any moment. Here goes the significance of using the Sanskrit term “Api” in this verse. Being as tolerant as tree – as tree won’t utter a single word if somebody cuts his branches, likewise one who engages in chanting the name of Lord, should never voices his protest. Also one should not keep any desire to be honored; instead one should give honors to others except him. In this way if one can chant the name of Sri Hari, can attain Prema easily.
That is why Sriman Mahaprabhu tells us through Ray Ramananda :
Je rupe loile naam prem upojoy
Tahar sawarup boli suna rama ray
And one who can attain Prema, it is obvious he will relish all aspects of Supreme Lord.
That is why bhakta (devotee) repents by the virtue of his own humility:
“ By the grace of Sriman Mahaprabhu, the world is flooded and drowned with Prema, but I am the only remaining person not touched by this flood. As floodwater does not touch the person sitting in high position, likewise flood of Prema is not able to reach me as I am sitting on top of my pride making myself unreachable.”
AbhiMan manche bosey roilam
Dhoni Mani kulin Pandit
Being a rich, respect desiring elite, sitting on elevated position made up of self pride, I am unable to attain the touch of single drop of Prema.
Brahma has his own pride as creator of Universe, which is very deep indeed, and that is preventing him to realize the Krishna Tattva. Then Brahma thought to test Krishna, if Krishna is Supreme Lord, he should be omniscient. Let me steal all the cowherd friend of Krishna and his cattle. Let me see if he can guess. If he is Supreme Lord, then he will know everything including that I am the person who stole his dearest, let me see what he will do in that case. If he comes to me and tell me “Brahma you stole my friends, please return them to me”, then I will understand that he is omniscient and he is indeed Supreme Lord. And if he cannot realize the truth then I will understand he is not all knower, thus he not the one I am thinking.
This is the intelligence of Brahma. By thinking in this way Brahma stole all of Krishna’s cowherd friends and calves. Since the time Brahma has wished to test Sri Krishna, maya of Sri Bhagavan has started haunting him. Because to examine Sri Bhagavan, Sri Guru Dev or ones parent is counted as a great offence. So Brahma became an offender here.
dasanudas - Mon, 08 Aug 2005 08:29:40 +0530
Since Brahma has stolen cowherd boys and calves Sri Bhagavan Krishna Chandra solves all the problems by acting himself as all his cowherd boys and calves to the extent of very minute details. Lord became exactly like each of the boys and each of the calves down to the smallest detail, and this continued for one year. Krishna himself became each and every cowherd boy and calf and every day he went for herding and returned to his own village at the end of each day. After almost one complete year Sri Bhagaban Krishna revealed himself to Brahma – that day Brahma saw in the herding field that there are no cowherd boys, no calves instead every boy and calf standing as four armed deity – everyone is holding conch shell, Sudarshan Chakra, club and lotus (SnkhaChakraGadaPadma) – everyone is embodiment of truth, wisdom, eternal bliss and supreme luster, million billion deities of Vasudeva. Brahma could not bear this sight, the shock of BiswaRupam, “Great sight of Universe”, his eyes dazzled and he lost his consciousness. After regaining the sight Brahma saw deities of Vasudeva is vanished, instead Krishna is standing in earlier seen dress of cowherd boy. He saw the same Krishna as he earlier observed from his abode but in between he witnessed million billion deities of Vasudeva. Brahma became astonished and started thinking “what I have seen? Is really Krishna pure Supreme Lord?”. That very moment his prides disappeared, his hearts became clean and he started feeling himself as poorer than poorest. That time he received mercy of DinaNatha (Lord of poor soul) Sri BalaGopal. Then Brahma’s heart started melting, tears started flowing from of his eyes. Brahma has four heads and eight eyes, and by the tears from these eight eyes he started washing the lotus feet of Lord, bowed at Lord’s feet over and over again. Sri Sukdeva Goswami tells here –
UththaYa UththaYa PranaMya
He started bowing by his each head one by one, standing thereafter and started with another head, in this way he worshipped Krishna and started his praise by completely surrendering himself to the feet of Lord.
This is due to mercy of Sri Bhagavan on Brahma – because without the mercy it is not possible to realize Lord’s swarupam, his true nature. Now Brahma is an offender to Lord, then where is the link, the reason of receiving this mercy of Lord? As the offender should receive the punishment, he is not allowed to receive ‘kripa’, if one culprit receives excuse then other will be inspired by that example to conduct more offence.
Here the reason behind attaining the blessings of Lord by Brahma is hidden somewhere
The mothers of the cowherd boys in Braja love very much their own children, but they love much more son of mother Jasoda. Still Braja mothers are not satisfied and not happy. They have an intense desire within their heart – if son of Jasoda becomes child of their own womb. On the other side, the cows in Braja love their own calves, but they love Krishna much more. How this can be proved? In this world we see while milking cows, if one brings calves near the cows, by the natural affection out of their love towards their own calves, they give milk instantly. But the nature of cows in Braja is not like that, she wouldn’t produce milk in front of her own calf, but if Krishna comes and stands besides her, then she would give milk out of deep love and affection towards Krishna. By this we can understand in Braja love of cows towards Krishna is much more than towards their own beloved child. But still cows are not satisfied in Braja, their inner desire is - if Krishna could come running towards me, by becoming my own calf if he could drink my mink by placing his lotus lips to my udder. Now these desires of Braja mothers and cows are the desire of Braja basi, residents of Braja. All worlds worship Krishna, but Krishna himself worships Braja basi, residents of Braja. Krishna is supreme Lord, he has infinite power with infinite ability, and still he is not able to fulfill this desire of Braja Basi. Because being son of Jasoda it is not possible to become son of any other and also it is not possible to become calf. This is impossible, then why these desires awaken in heart of Braja basi? Because most of the time desire comes out of impossibility, and desire does not follow any rules or logic, it arises automatically.
dasanudas - Mon, 08 Aug 2005 08:32:58 +0530
As Brahma stole calves and boys, Krishna was able to fulfill this desire of Braja Basi – Bhagavan Sri Krishna expanded himself and became exactly like each of the boys and each of the calves down to the smallest detail, and thus He went to mothers and cows everyday throughout the year. Then every Braja mother received Krishna as their own child, because when Krishna went to mother of SriDam as SriDam, mother did not receive pure original Sri Dam, but Sri Bhagavan Krishna himself. Likewise when Krishna went to cows as their own calves and drinks their milk by placing his lips to their udder, then all the cows received him as their own beloved claves. Thus Lord could fulfill their desired, and this is undoubtedly because of the act of Brahma. By this fashion Brahma received the mercy of Lord without his own knowledge. Lord did not reveal the resultant happiness of his mind arising due to this mercy, by his external behavior to Brahma. When Brahma was praising Lord, Lord did not tell a single word to him, nor did He smile, and did not express any happiness from the gesture of his eyes. He was listening to Brahma with supreme gravity, because it is not correct to express happiness near an offender.
First praising sentence of Brahma –
NaumiDya teHyaBhrabaPushe TwadiDambyaRaya
GungaBatangSya PariPichchalSanmuKhaya |
LakshmaSriye Mridupade pasupanGyaJaya ||
-Srimad Bhagavatam 10/14/1
Here Brahma, the speaker of Veda is lauding Sri ShyamSundara – “Lord I do sing your praise.” Here the word “Naumi” comes from Sanskrit Nu dhatu, which means praise. “Because if anybody in the universe is eligible for praise, he is You. Because in this world you are the only shelter and everyone else is sheltered. As everybody is under your control, thus you are supremely independent. One, who is independent, has the right to receive praise. That is why I am praising you.” Sri BalaGopal indeed is not uttering a single word – though he is happy on Brahma, by the virtue of his mercy, but he is not expressing that externally. He is listening with utmost seriousness and dignity. But still it appears as if he is questioning Brahma by his silent words –
“Brahman, you are not praising me, you are glorifying somebody else”.
Brahma is replying – “Prabhu, I am glorifying only you, nobody else”. Sri BalaGopal is questioning, “How do I understand?”. Brahma is replying, “Prabhu, if I use adjectives, then you will understand that this praise only refers to you, it will not go anywhere else. Here I am using on adjective ‘aBhrabaPushe te Naumi’.” You have bodily luster like newly born rain cloud - but material cloud of this world cannot be compared with your beauty, that is why great saints have told -
The luster of new clouds is ashamed by the luster of your body. Still we compare the beauty of Lord with material cloud because we are not familiar with transcendental object. We generally hear the word “transcendental” or “divine” by our ears, pronounce it by our tongue but we do not have any knowledge of this type of object. We do not receive transcendental object in our hand or if we receive somehow we cannot realize this. Achieving an object means to realize the same and receiving object by hands does not mean we are actually achieving this. For example if one child receives a book, he cannot understand the book, as he is unable to realize by applying his intelligence.
Now here Sri BalGopal is trying to argue:
“Brahman, Sriman Narayan also possesses that same bodily luster like newly born cloud. So you are praising Narayan, not me”.
Brahma is trying to refute Lord’s argument “Prabhu, I am not glorifying Narayan, but you only, let me use another adjective to make it more clear. ‘TwadiDambyaRaya’ te Naumi - I am praising you, who dresses with electrifying yellowish clothes –
It is told that dress of Govinda is like ‘RaviKarBarambYaRam’ – yellowish like rays of Sun (Pitabaram).”
Krishna introduces himself as Pitavas (wears yellow clothes) –
KishoriDas mui PitaBas iHate sandeha Jar |
Koti Jonmya Jodi amare bhajaye bifol bhajan tar || (CC)
Who doubts that I am the follower of Kishori and wear always yellow dress, his worship to me will be in vain, even if he worships me for million of births.
Sri Jayadeva also referred Him in his GitaGovindam as-
“That is why I am praising you only, why Sriman Narayan? “ Brahma argues.
Sri BalaGopal is again questioning silently “Brahman, Narayan also wears yellow clothes, how do I understand you are talking about me?” Then Brahma is giving next adjective – “Prabhu let me explain with another adjective- which will not go after Narayan but you only.”
“You have earrings made of gunja seeds, you have ornaments on your head made of peacock feather, and you are wearing garlands made of forest flower- you are dressed like forester” – Krishna of Braja is the supreme embodiment of sweetness, madhurya – Narayan is deity of aishwarya, wealth, he dresses like king, precious necklace made of jewelry is swinging on his chest, he has ornaments on his head and earrings made of gold. So I am praising you, son of the king of Braja.” If Sri BalaGopal still disagrees, Brahma is giving another adjective “Prabhu you have garland made of forest flower on your chest- that is why you are vanyasraj. You are garlanded by forest flower not Narayan”. Though Sri Krishna is not uttering any word here nor disagreeing with Brahma, but it seems he is still not happy, guessing this mood of BalaGopal, Brahma is providing some more adjective.
– Prabhu this will not go anywhere beside you- the meaning of kabal is morsel specifically of rice. Rice mixed with yogurt is at your palm of left hand with pilu fruits within the gap of yours fingers, - you are wandering while eating with your friends, chatting and making fun with them – you are herding with them. This will never apply to Narayan, because Narayan never does so. Again you only keep herding stick i.e Vetra, you only hold Vishan, a buffalo-horn bugle and Venu i.e flute.”
Narayan never holds Vetra, Vishan or Venu and he never plays flute. Flutes is only being played by Krishna of Braja, even when the same Krishna performs Lila in Dwaraka or Mathura he never plays flute. Wives of Krishna in Dwaraka prayed to Krishna – “Prabhu, why you don’t play your flute here? We heard that you played flute in Braja regularly. By hearing the tune of the flute, Radharani and all other Gopi used to go mad, come out from their house and run towards forest looking for you. Prabhu we also keep same desire to hear that mind blowing sound of your flute.” To this prayer Krishna Chandra replied, “Here in Dwaraka, it is not required for me to play my flute. Because in Braja Radharani has paramount pique – it is not possible to convince her or melt her indignation even by the tune of flute. For this I have even sold my head to her lotus feet (Dehipadapallavamudaram), but without any success. But in Dwaraka I can easily break the indignation of my wives by mild scolding, so I do not have reason to play flute here”.
Here Brahma is telling, “Lord you see I am glorifying you only.” Sri Bhagavan is listening to this, but he is not commenting at all. Brahma continues further “Prabhu, allow me to tell more, you are ‘LakshmaSriye’. You have incommensurable Sri i.e. beauty.”
dasanudas - Mon, 08 Aug 2005 08:34:40 +0530
It well known, that the wealth of Sri Krishna is highest, what to speak about the beauty. Because it is told –
Krishner je madhurya taha nei Narayane
The sweetness of Krishna is of highest order, even which is not present in Narayan. Sri Bhagavan has infinite qualities, but as we cannot understand the infinite, we tend to divide infinite in order to realize.
Srila Kaviraj GoswamiPad tells us –
AnantYa Krishner Gun Chausatti Pradhan |
Ek Ek gun suni judaYa bhakta Kan ||
Among the infinite qualities of Krishna only sixty-four are major. Among them only fifty qualities transmit to Jiva in the form of droplets. That is why Sri Bhagavan has qualities in the order of ocean, while Jiva has the same by the order of droplets. Devotees swim through those droplets thinking that as ocean. Here goes the account of these fifty qualities. Next five qualities go to Mahadev Shankara i.e Shiva. Next five qualities along with previous fifty-five qualities are found within Lakshmi Devi in Vaikuntha. So far we have accounted for sixty qualities, the remaining four qualities are reserved only for Govinda, and these four will not go anywhere else beside Lord. Scriptures tells us about these four qualities of Govinda – they are Prema Madhurya, Lila Madhurya, Benu Madhurya, Rupa Madhurya – Sweetness of Prema, Lila, Flute and the Beauty of Govinda.
Srila Kaviraj Goswamipada tells us –
SarbyadBhut chamaTkari lila kallol madhuri |
Atul maDhur prema manDita priyaManDal ||
Trijaganmansa korsHi murli kala kujita |
These four qualities of Govinda are fantastic four. The sweetness or madhurya of Sri Govinda is ’LakshmaSriye’ according to Brahma - it attracts the mind of everybody – but this is not the ultimate truth – if we try to explain more deeply, more minutely then we should tell his own beauty attracts Govinda himself –
The avatar of beauty manifests himself to full extent within Govinda only, nowhere else, so beauty of Govinda is unparallel. Brahma is giving another adjective to his glorification,”Prabhu, you are ‘Mridupada’ i.e your feet is very soft, even softer than lotus ”. Because Sri Bhagavan is now performing his childhood pastime that is why his feet is soft, and this is not true in any other pastime. Even Radharani fears to touch his lotus feet, Gopis of Braja are scared in placing Lord’s feet to their breast by thinking, if due to hard nature of their breast; Lord’s feet may be hurt. When this Lord is in his childhood his feet is even softer. That is why Brahma uses this adjective; certainly it will not refer Narayan. This is the significance of Brahma’s word,” I am glorifying you only, no one else.” Next Brahma uses another adjective ‘pasupanGyaJaya’. In this praise Brahma concludes a great truth and Sri Bhagavan admits.
Brahma is glorifying Lord, which is beyond the reach of Veda, and this is essence of all Tattva. In his first sentence of glorification, by the mercy of Lotus feet of Sri GuruDeva we have relished the nectar all the adjectives used so far by Brahma appropriately, except one. Brahma is referring Sri BalaGopal as ‘pasupanGyaJaya’. Before this one, those adjectives which are used by Brahma, among them Lord objects first two i.e ‘aBhrabaPushe’ and ‘TwadiDambyaRaya’ as these two goes to Narayana also. “Brahman these two goes to Narayan, not me. So you are glorifying Narayan not me”. Though Lord has not spoken here, but by his silent gesture of his eyes he tries to convey his objection. Understanding Lord’s objection Brahma later uses those adjectives, which will not refer Narayana anymore; only it will refer to Sri Krishna of Braja. And Sri Bhagavan agrees with these. At the end of this sentence Brahma uses last adjective; he is glorying Lord,” You are ‘pasupanGyaJaya’, I am glorify to your lotus feet”.
dasanudas - Mon, 08 Aug 2005 08:36:21 +0530
The meaning of the word ‘pasup’ of ‘pasupanGyaJaya’ refers to those whose job is herding – i.e Vaisya Jati or caste, in other words it refers to Nanda Maharaj. By relation Nanda Maharaj and Vasudev are brothers. But Nanda Maharaja belongs to Vaishya caste and Vasudev belongs to Khsatriya caste.
There was a king named DebaMir – he had two wives, one belonged to Khsatriya caste and other to Vaishya caste. From the womb of king’s Khsatriya wife, his son Sur was born and from the womb of Vaishya wife, son Parjan was born. As son receives the caste of his own mother, so Sur became Khsatriya and Parjan became Vaisya. Son of this Sur was Sauri i.e Vasudev belonged to Khsatriya caste and Son of Parjan was Nanda Maharaj, belonged to Vaisya caste. Brahma is telling here,”Prabhu you are ‘angaja’ of this Nanda Maharaj who belongs to Vaisya caste. You are own son of Nanda, I am praising you. This ‘pasupanGyaJaya’ will not go to Narayana at all, because Narayan is not son of Maharaja Nanda”.
Now someone can argue Lord Sri Krishna has appeared as Sriman Narayan before mother Devaki and Vasudev at the prison of Kamsha. Krishna has appeared in the four-armed form, as deity of ‘aisarya’ majesty. After watching that four armed of Krishna Vasudev and Devaki became astonished, by understanding their fear Lord revealed his identity. Lord assured them by telling,” I can understand that by looking at this form of mine you are surprised. Can’t you remember? you two had worshipped me for long time by tolerating the grief of winter, summer, rain, hunger and sleeplessness? By your worship I was please and appeared before you and asked you,” What you want? Whatever you will pray, I will grant.” That time you prayed, “We may receive a son like you.” My reply was,” No body is like me, if I need to fulfill your desire then I myself have to come as your son.” Now I came as your son. Also you are not only my parents in this yuga; you are my parents in all the yugas. At the time of Satya Juga you were Prishni and Sutapa, and I appeared as your child – that time I was known to people as ‘PrisNiGarva’, again when you were as Aditi and Kashyap, then also I became your son during my Vamana avatar. Now at this age of Dwapara you became Vasudev and Devaki, and again I have come to you as your son. Now I can understand your fear to keep me here at the prison of Kamsha. If Kamsha hears this news, you are thinking he is going to do the same with me as he has done your earlier children. Thus I am suggesting to keep me in Nanda Gokul.” In this way while talking Lord became exactly like material child with two arms. Vasudev went to Gokul by crossing Yamuna and kept Lord at the bed of Yasoda and returned with newly born daughter of Yasoda. Up to this point Sripad Sukdeb Goswami has described the birth Lila of Lord in his Srimad Bhagavatam, tenth- scanda. Now we can see Sri Krishna is son of Vasudev who of Khsatriya, but Brahma is referring him as ‘pasupanGyaJaya’ i.e. son of Vaishya Nanda Maharaja, how one can solve this apparent paradox? Here, one important truth, which was not discussed clearly by Sukdeb Goswami during the description of birth Lila, but he has hinted the same during the description of Nanda Utsava, celebration festival of Nanda Maharaja.
Sri Bhagavan has appeared not only in prison of Kamsha, at Mathura, but in two places simultaneously– he appeared in Nanda Gokul also at the same time. He took birth as son of Nanda Maharaj and Ma Jasoda. Though Srimad Sukdeb Goswami has not narrated this clearly during the birth Lila, but he explained rather clearly during Nanda Festival –
Nandastvatmaja utpanney jatahlado maha-monah |
-Srimad Bhagavatam 10/5/1
Because Lord has born as son of Nanda Maharaj, Nanda was very happy, that is why he was celebrating birth of his son with great arrangement. He was donating huge amount of jewelry, gold etc to every body within his kingdom. While listening about the celebration from the mouth of Sri Sukdeb Goswami, Maharaj Parikshit became stunned about the amount of wealth of Nanda Maharaj. King Parikshit started thinking,”Nanda is king of a small province, under the Kingdom of Kamsha, and how he has achieved so much of wealth?” King is thinking, “Though I am the King of the entire BhrataVarsha, I even could not think of spending like this, while celebrating birth festival of my own child.” Understanding the thought of Parikshit, Sri Sukdeb spoke,” Maharaj, why you are thinking so? When Sri Bhagawan appeared as son of Nanda in Braja, goddess of Vaikuntha, goddess of wealth, MahaLakshmi Devi poured all her treasures to the house of Nanda Maharaja. From that time onwards MahaLakshmi is servicing in Braja. That is why the wealth of Nanda Maharaj is so enormous”. Maharaj Parikshit understood this explanation.
Here Sri Sukdeb Goswami referred Sri BalaGopal as ‘atmaja’ of Nanda. If Nanda Maharaja indeed was raising son of Vasudev, then Sukdeb would haven’t referred Sri Krishna as ‘atmaja’ of Nanda Maharaj. The term ‘atmaja’ refers to one’s son born out of his own body; it does not refer to son of other. Here Sri Sukdeb Goswami agreed on the fact that Sri BalaGopal is own son of Nanda Maharaj.
Though in Srimad Bhagavatam it is not clearly declared that Lord also appeared at
Nanda Gokul as son of Nanda Maharaja, this fact is written rather clearly in other
Scriptures such as KrishnaYamal, BrahMaYamal –
NandaPaTnayam YasoDayam Mithunam saMaJayata |
SriGovindaH pumyan kanYa sambiYka mathuRam gataH ||
Wife of Nanda Jasoda has given birth of a ‘Mithun’. Though ‘Mithun’ refers to twin child, but only if twin consists of one son and one daughter. Twin cannot be referred as ‘Mithun’, if twin children are either sons or daughters. So here we can understand Ma Jasoda gave birth of twin, one son and one daughter. Now what are the identities of these two children of Jasoda? Scriptures tells us – the son is Sri Govinda and the daughter is Devi Durga i.e Devi Ambika. Vasudev returned to the prison of Kamsha in Mathura with Devi Ambika. Govinda took birth from the womb of Ma Jasoda on asthmi tithi while Devi Ambika born later on navami tithi, because birth of twin does not happen simultaneously, but sequentially. So Lord appeared in two places, in Braja Nanda Gokul and in Mathura, this is the conclusion of Brahma in his praise, which is also conclusion of Sri Sukdeb Goswami and Lord also approves this. Lord is listening silently to the praise by Brahma, and did not raise any objection. We know “Maunam Sammati Lakshmanam” i.e silence should be taken as approval. So by remaining silence Lord approves conclusions of Brahma.
We may feel astonish by hearing Lord has appeared in two places. But where is the reason for objection? It is not possible to force the appearance of Lord by any single individual but by Bhakti Maharani i.e. Goddess of Bhakti, she makes Lord to appear. Wherever and whenever Bhakti appears Lord appears there. So why only in two places? Lord may appear to infinite places if Bhakti Maharani blesses likewise. Though it is not possible to measure the amount of Bhakti, but still if we try to imagine the amount of Bhakti in Devaki and Vasudev as one unit, then correspondingly the amount of Bhakti of Ma Jasoda and Nanda Maharaj would be one billion units. If amount of Bhakti of Devaki and Vasudev can be measure by one palm of our hand, then amount of Bhakti of Ma Jasoda and Nanda Maharaj should be measured by Mount Sumeru.
If mother Jasoda gave birth of one son and one daughter, and when Vasudev brought his own son Krishna from Mathura, kept him at the bed of Jasoda and returned back to Mathura with the daughter Ambika, one can raise question if there are two Krishna in Braja? We do not see two Krishna performing Lila in Braja, but only one. The fact is, it was not revealed to Vasudev, that Jasoda nandan Krishna was laying on the bed of Jasoda. Yogamaya, the Lila potency of Krishna concealed son of Jasoda from the eyes of Vasudev. Because Yogamaya is ‘aghatan- ghatan – patiyasi’, the supreme controller of lila, she thought the beauty of lila would be decreased if two Krishna were shown, that is why she concealed son of Jasoda. Thus Vasudev only saw daughter Durga, and came back to Mathura by taking her.
Then Sri HariVamsha is telling us –
VausedevaSutaH SriMana VasudevoKhilatMani |
Lino NandoSuteH Rajan GhoneH Saudamini Jatha ||
Son of Vasudev, who is fullest representation of aisarya i.e. divine majesty, who remains as the internal paramatma within all Jiva, He became merged with son of Nanda Maharaj, Sri Govinda, who is embodiments of supreme sweetness and beauty. Two Krishna became one, as if we see the flashlight of thunder within the chest of rain cloud for once, that flash never appears later on, likewise. Here comparisons are drawn with son of Vasudev, the deity of majesty and wealth with the flashlight of thunder, whereas son of Nanda Sri Govinda manifestation of beauty and sweetness is compared with rain cloud.
That is why Krishna who is performing lila in Braja is the one and only one. This is the pure and appropriate conclusion of scripture. Because all the conclusions in Srimad Bhagavatam are appropriate and original, there is no ‘apaSidhdhanta’ or bad conclusion.
Govinda listened to first sentence of Brahma’s praise. Now comes the second praise of Brahma.
dasanudas - Mon, 05 Sep 2005 10:11:23 +0530
By the grace of Sri Guru we have relished appropriately the nectar of glorification by four-headed Brahma to the lotus feet of Lord. This is about the second verse of the praise. Brahma is speaking –
aSyapi deVa vapuso mad-anugrahasya
sweChha-maYasYa na tu bhuta-mayasya koHpi |
nese mahi tvaVasitum maNasanTarena
sakshat taVaiva kiMutaTma-sukhanubhuteh ||
-Srimad Bhagavatam 10/14/2
Sri BalaGopal has already listened the first praise sentence of Brahma very carefully. Lord never revealed his inner feeling outside, but rasik Gaudiya Vaishnava Acharya Sri Pada Viswanatha Chakraborty Mahasaya has captured the inner thought of Sri Govinda by his tika (commentary). As if Lord is trying to tell Brahma “Ohey Brahman, You are the master of one universe, Creator, LokaPitaMaha (great great Grandfather of all the Jiva) – thus you have enormous wealth and in contrast myself is a son of a ordinary dairy farmer, you are old, thus you are very wise and myself is younger in age, merely a boy. Brahman you know the significance of all Vedas – you have recited four Vedas by your four mouths, you are the speaker of Vedas, so you are supremely wise, you are well behaved, well mannered and my job is cow herding, thus I am a cow herd boy without any knowledge, supremely fool – I do not even have any fragrance of well behavior in my activities. I do not know the well-mannered way to act, to behave. If you question me where is the proof that I am not well mannered, well behaved, cultured boy? Then my answer would be – just look at me how I am taking food, taking the morsel of rice in my left palm, I am wandering through forest in Braja, and thus having my food. Is it the desired action by any well-mannered, wise person? Let me tell you another fact here, Brahman you are absolutely happy, supreme Lord by yourself. By the influence of your Maya, keeping the grief in my heart, I wander from one forest to another. So you can understand that it is not logical for you to praise me, nor I can accept your glorification, as I am not at all worthy of receiving your praise. Why you are glorifying me?” Though Lord has not uttered these words from his lotus lips, but Brahma anticipated His thought, thus Brahma is telling – Prabhu, indeed I have committed great offence to your lotus feet. In order to convey this Brahma has started his second sentence of the praise-
“O Dev. Hey Dev. Dev means supreme Lord, Bhagavan, Dev refers to only you, nobody else in this universe is eligible to receive the title ‘Dev’. Because it is declared in scripture:
“Eko Devo DevakiPutra Eba”
Son of Devaki is one and only Dev. It is further declared:
“Eko Devo NityaLilaNuraktaH”
Only Lord KrishnaChandra is Deva and he is eternally affectionate to his Lila. He is eternally inclined to perform Lila. Kaviraj Goswami Pada tells us –
EkaleY Iswar Krishna aar sob vriTya |
JareY JaiChey Nachay se Taichey korey nritya ||
Krishna is supreme Lord, he is one and only Bhagawan – every one else is his vriTya i.e. servants and under his control. He is supreme master and everybody else is working for him, even including Brahma and Shiva. The creation activities performed by Brahma is in accordance to the wish of Govinda; again by the instruction of Sri Govinda, Shiva destroys the universe as ‘Rudra’. Any other demigod like Indra, VauYu, Varun are under control of Sri Govinda.
Brahma is telling – “You are the only Dev, Supreme Lord. Prabhu, I do not have the capability to understand your boyhood pastime, the Lila you are performing now at this age. If I cannot understand your boyhood Lila, then it can be easily deduced that, I will not be able to understand later, your other Lilas during your young age, and so forth. If I employ all my wisdom, intelligence and intellect to understand the significance of your pastime, still potency of your Lila will be beyond my reach. The supreme pleasure you enjoy by performing your cow herding Lila is immeasurable, how can I understand that bliss? I cannot understand the supreme pleasure you enjoy during your pastime, even the nature and the amount of pleasure enjoyed by your partners, eternal associates of Lila are beyond my imagination. I am Brahma, if I am not able to understand, who else would be able to? In other word nobody will be able to understand. Because, by studying scripture, performing Tapasya, practicing Yoga or by any other means no body can understand the glory of your pastimes – Knowledge, TapaSya, Wisdom, Yoga, Karma, beauty or youth, aristocracy nothing can be the reason behind the realization of your glory, but by the grace of single drop of your mercy one can achieve this realization. Prabhu why I am telling that only by the grace of your mercy one can realize your glory? Because I have experienced this by my own. I am an offender to your lotus feet, as I tried to test your Godhood by stealing boys and calves. This is a great offence, but you have showered your mercy upon an offender like me – Why I am telling that you have blessed me with your kripa? – As by removing my blindness, my pride you have shown me your ViswaRupam, majestic form. That is why I can understand you have immense mercy for me. If you asked me what is the reason of your mercy towards me? The answer is that you are ‘sweChha-maYa’.”
Here the meaning of ‘sweChha-maYa’ is not the same, as we understand it commonly. The general meaning of ‘sweChha-maYa’ refers to a person who is independent, who acts in accordance to his own will. But this meaning cannot be adopted in case of Govinda; here ‘sweChha-maYa’ means ‘Swa – Ichha ’ - Swa means those who are very dear to Govinda i.e. his devotee. Because, devotee of Lord is very dear to him. In this way ‘sweChha-maYa’ refers to Lord, who is under the control of his devotee’s will.
Gaudiya Vaishnava Acharya Srila Viswanatha Chakraborti Pada explains in his commentary:
Swiyanam premaBhaktiMatam jaTha jaTha jaH jaH ichcha didriksha |
SiSheVishaDiStuNmayashaYa bhaktaVatsalaT taTtaTSampaDakSyatYarThaH ||
Your devotee who has ‘premaBhakti’ i.e. loving devotion towards you, whenever and whatever they make wishes, whether these wills are to see, to serve you, you fulfill their desire, because of your ‘bhaktaVatsala’ i.e. your loving affectionate nature towards your devotee.
Brahma is telling further -“ I am not at all a devotee, far from the quality of a Bhakta, a ‘BhaktaVas’, on top of that I am an offender to your lotus feet, thus I am not at all eligible to receive your consideration for mercy. Still you have blessed me with your mercy. That is why you have appeared to this word, you have revealed your true nature by your deity, your ‘Bigraha’, as you and your ‘Bigraha’ i.e. your Deity are non different. Your ‘Bapu’ i.e. your body is not made of ‘Bhuta’, not made from this material world, the revelation of your body in this world is in accordance to the wish of your devotee, thus your body is of transcendental in nature.”
It is narrated in BrahmaSamhita-
“Angani jasYa sakalenDriyaVrittiManti”
Any part of Lord’s body can act as any sense organ. Likewise Upanishad tells us-
ApaniPadoU jabonou grahitaH pasyaTaChakShuH sHa sriNyotYaKarNoH |
Though Lord has no hands, he accepts, he has no legs, he walks, he has no eyes, he watches and even he has no ears, still he listens.
Brahma continues – “Prabhu you have revealed your ‘deva bapu’ i.e. your transcendental body, infinite deities of Vasudeva to my eyes, thus I can feel your mercy towards me, your body is not materialistic like us, so it is not made of five ‘bhuta’s, ‘panchaVautik’ materials, your body is preternatural, ‘chinmaya’. It is ‘SachchidanandaMaya’, not only ‘SachchidanandaMay’ it is super condensed state of ‘SachchidanandaMaya. ’ SachchidanandaMaya’ means ‘Sat’ (eternal), ‘Chit’ (Gyan or wisdom) and ‘Ananda’ (bliss) , and your swarupa or true nature is supremely condensed form of Sat, Chit and Ananda. The extreme proof of your mercy upon me is that you have taught me chatuSloki BhagaVatam. Even though I am Brahma, even I could not understand the potency of your body, who else can understand this? No body can. This is all about your majestic revelation, all about your ‘aisharya’. And when in order to relish your own pure sweetness of Lila, in your boyhood pastime you steal yogurt, steal ‘nani’, drink breast milk of mother Jasoda, go for cow herding or reveal other sweetly naughty affairs matching your boyhood characteristics with your associates in braja- those are not present to your any other majestic avatara – nobody else at all can realize these Lilas. But if you mercifully bless your devotee, they can relish the sweetness of your Lila within a moment. That is why your realization is solely dependant on your kripa.”
Sri BalaGopal is asking Brahma by his silent gesture through his eyes,”Brahman, how the Jivas in this world can achieve me easily, what do you think? Have you decided any way for them to achieve me? If you know anything please tell me, as I am present in front of you I will rectify your conclusion, if required, otherwise I will approve it.” By knowing the question of Lord’s mind Brahma started thinking within his mind,”Prabhu, who I am to answer your question? But if you bless me then I can try, as without your kripa nothing is possible to achieve.”
But Brahma is speaking externally,” Prabhu, by your mercy, let me tell how Jiva can achieve you easily”. This is third praising verse by Brahma-
Gyane praYasamuDapasYa naManTya Eva
JivanTi sanMukhariTam bhavaDiyaVarTam |
SthaNeSthiTaH sruTiGaTam taNuVanManoBhir
Je prayaSoHJita JitaHpYasi taiStriLoKyam ||
-Srimad Bhagavatam 10/14/3
Brahma is speaking,”Prabhu, those, who worship you are very clever”. It is known from the padavali from Vaishnava saints-
“Je Jon bhajeY Krishna se Boro chatur”
Whoever worships Krishna is very clever. But this cleverness is not worldly fraudulence.
It is said as the symptom of cleverness -
“Ja lokadwaYaTarini chaturaTa sa chaturi chaturi”
That cleverness is precious, by virtue of which one worships the lotus feet of Gaur-Govinda while being in this material body, thus escaping from both ‘ihoLok’ and ‘paroLok’ i.e. both this world and world after death. Because once this materialistic body is finished, nothing can be done for worship, as Gaur-Govinda has given us this body for the purpose of his worship. We have to finish our worship within our lifetime. Thus for devotee not only this world is non-desired but ‘parolok’ i.e. world after death is also non-desired. By the result of worldly pious karma one goes to heaven i.e. ‘parolok’ and for bad karma one receives hell i.e. ‘adhoHLoka’. But this parolok i.e. heaven is transient, non-eternal. The different lokas or abodes are in existence beyond heaven such as ‘jana’, ‘maha’,’tapa’, ‘satya’ etc. are also not eternal; nobody can stay there permanently. By the exchange of accumulated piety one can enjoy heavenly happiness. This accumulation of piety due to pious karma will be decreasing gradually while enjoying heavenly happiness, and eventually it will be finished. Then we have to come back to this world again. That is why intelligent devotee does not want the happiness of heaven or the happiness of BrahmaLoka, because they know all these are non-real. Those objects not having eternal existence are considered as unreal. That is why intelligent person does not endorse non-real substances. This heavenly happiness prevents in relishing the sweetness of lotus feet of Gaur-Govinda, for this reason this happiness is considered as obstacle, or ‘anartha’. Again it can be easily understand that due to result of bad karma, the destination of hell i.e. ‘narak’ is a natural obstacle for worship of Lord. So we see here ‘iholok’ and ‘paroloka’ both are to be abandoned. Srila Kaviraj tells us-
KrishnaBhaktir badhak jato subhaAsubhaKarma |
SeHo hay jiber ek agYanTama dharma ||
Pious karma as well as bad karma, both is the obstacles on the path of Krishna Bhakti, both are the most foolish characteristics of Jiva.
Srila Narattama Thakur Mahasaya tells us –
Pap na KariHa man Adham Se PapiJon
Tare mui dure poriHari |
Punnya je sukher dham tar na loiyo naam
Punnya mukti dui tyag kori ||
PremBhakti sudhaNidhi Tahe dubo nirabodhi
Ar jato ksharNidhi praya ||
Do not commit sin sinner is most fallen
I abandon him from far |
The resultant abode of pious work do not take that name
I abandon both, the results of piety and salvation |
Loving devotion is king of honey submerge yourself always into this
Everything else is like king of acid |
Bhakta is clever – so he relinquishes all worldly pious, impious activities, because he knows these are not favoring him in attaining the happiness by serving lotus feet of Sri Bhagawan.
Brahma is saying,”Prabhu, only those, who are your devotee, can attain you. They do not go to the path of ‘gyana’ or knowledge”. Sri Jiva Goswami Pada has explained ‘Gyane praYasamuDapasYa’ verse – he has revealed the meaning of ‘uDapasYa’ as –
Here ‘Gyana’ means the knowledge of non-dual ‘BrahmaGyan’ of Advaita Vedanta, which equates between Jiva and Brahma. Which states, Jiva is atomic consciousness, when after intense ‘Sadhana’ or practice during the attainment of ‘sidhdhi’ or salvation he will become Brahman, this is opinion of Advaita Vedanta. Bhakta abandons this knowledge. Bhakta does not follow this path, because while atomic consciousness Jiva may perform intense ‘sadhana’, and during the absolute phase of ‘sadhana’ i.e. during time of Sidhdhi he may attain realization of BramHa ‘BramHanubhuti’, he may be merged with BramHa, but how he will become BramHa himself – BramHa is ‘vibhu’ chaitanya i.e. huge, big, enormous, infinite consciousness. How atomic consciousness can be of infinite consciousness? How ‘anu’ i.e. atom can be ‘bivu’ i.e. infinite? Small cannot be huge enormous, finite cannot be infinite. If someone pours water from one container to water of ocean, water from the container will be merged and mixed with the water of ocean, but how the finite amount of water will become infinite amount of seawater? For this reason devotee does not walk on the path of non-dual knowledge. Also the path of ‘gyana’ or knowledge is tiring as lots of effort is required, but without the devotion if one practices knowledge only, this would only yield zero result and fatigue. Devotee tries to attain the knowledge of Lord, thus become MahaVagavat. Gyana means knowledge of Lord and Devotion means love. Without knowing someone no one can love him, no one can love unknown person. The name of extremely perfected state of the path of Gyana is devotion, pure love. Govinda is not there in the path of ‘pure’ knowledge. Path of ‘pure’ knowledge is the path of search. Govinda is not present on the path of search. Govinda is on the path of love. In the ‘nitya lila’ during the time of Rasa Lila, SriMati RadhaRani and other ‘gopis’ searched for Govinda from forest to forest, but they could not find him. Thus they abandon the effort of searching him and came back to the ‘JamunaPulin Sri RasaSthali’, the place of Rasa Lila in JamunaPulin, and they started singing the glory of Govinda, which is the path of pure devotion, the path of ‘prema’, the path of love. Govinda is there on the path of ‘Prema’.
Great saints have said –
SuDhu kuleY ki Govinda MeleY
Keno kul kul kore kul haRao go
Emon baKul praNeY na dakiLeY suDhu kuLeY ki govinDa meLeY –
The essence of above Pada –
Can anybody find Govinda only by searching?
Why you are getting lost on the path by endless searching?
If you do not cry out by calling Govinda from your restless heart, can you find him only by searching?
That is why devotee does not go on the path of ‘gyana’ knowledge, he relinquishes that path of search, instead he adopts two easiest ways – the first one: only to bowing down their head at Lord’s feet, they perform ‘pranama’ i.e. offering obeisance, ‘naManTya Eva’ – in other words only they offer ‘Pranam’, obeisance, nothing else.
Lord Sri BalaGopla is asking by his silent eye, “Brahman, my devotees only bow down to my feet and offer ‘Pranam’, obeisance? In which way they do so? ”. Brahma is replying back to Lord,” Prabhu, your devotee offer you their obeisance by ‘taNuVanManoBhiH’, by their body, by their word glorifying you, and by their mind and soul they offer their obeisance to you. In other words ‘KayoManoVakye’ they offer you their ‘Pranam’”.
‘Pranam’ by body – ‘PanchAngYa pranam’,‘SasTyanGya pranam’ or ‘DandaVat pranam’ all types of pranams are by body. And Pranam by words means when devotee tells Lord “I am offering you my obeisance” or when devotee sings the glory of Lord. Again while performing glorification of Lord, while chanting his name during ‘samkirtana’, when devotee sings “Hari Bol, Hari Bol” or “Sadhu, Sadhu”, this is also an example of offering obeisance by the word of devotee. And the meaning of offering pranam by mind and soul is, while offering obeisance by bowing down the body; one should bow down his mind and soul as well. Devotee put their mind to the feet of Lord in order to show their inner respect from heart, which is more than a adherence of mere protocol, in offering such obeisance by devotee’s body, word and mind, devotee literally accepts the meaning of the word ‘Pranam’ which is ‘Pra for Prakrstha- Nam for nata dhatu’ i.e. bowing down by all possible way at the feet of Lord. Devotee has chosen this easy way to attain Lord by offering pranam with his body, word and mind.
Sri BalaGopal is staring at Brahma as if he is asking silently,”Brahman, in order to attain me, my devotee only offers their pranam to me? Nothing else?” Brahma is replying,”Prabhu, along with this way of offering you pranam, your devotee also adopts another easiest path – they have adopted your glory and glory of yours own people as the way to live their life – ‘JivanTi sanMukhariTam bhavaDiyaVarTam’.”
How this is possible to adopt glory of Lord and His devotee as way of leading the life? One should hear the glory, story of Lord and His devotee by ears. This is an act of listening. Then why Brahma the Master of Language has used the verb ‘JivanTi’ which is for ‘living the life’ instead of the verb ‘SriNwanti’ which is for ‘listening by ears’? What is the reason behind using JivanTi’ ‘kriya pada’?
In his ‘tika’ Sri Santana GoswamiPada has explained: There are huge differences between these two verbs ‘JivanTi’ and ‘SriNwanti’. Glory of Lord should be listened by ears, but this hearing, which is the meaning of ‘SriNwanti’ verb and making the glory of Lord and his devotee as the way to lead the life, which is the meaning of ‘JivanTi’ verb, has very big difference. Only hearing the glory of Lord means, this listening is non-mandatory; one may choose to skip hearing this glory of Lord, if he feels like. If one person listens one day Gaur Katha, Hari Katha but for next few days he skips hearing the same, then this can be described by the verb ‘SriNwanti’, but the verb ‘JivanTi’ can not be used here. ‘JivanTi’ means to live the life, this is the way to survive, in other words without hearing one day Gaur Katha, Hari Katha one would feel like he is dying. This is like the mundane example of taking the food to erase hunger, taking the water to subdue thirst in order to maintain the life, because life is the source from where hunger, thirst arises, that is why life does not survive without taking food and drink. Similarly devotee takes the act of listening the glory of Lord for his survival in such a way, without doing so he cannot survive even for a single day. Thus the application of ‘JivanTi’ verb in this verse by Brahma is absolutely appropriate.
Srila Kaviraj Goswami pada tells us -
KrishnaNamaMriTa Bine Khay Jodi AnnoPaney
Tabu bhakter durbal jibon |
If devotee takes healthy food and drinks but if for one day he misses the opportunity of hearing the glory of Lord and his devotee his life becomes sick, no matter how healthier food he takes. How the life of devotee becomes sick, in spite of taking adequate food and drinks? Because life of devotee does not survive on food and drinks, but he survives on hearing the glory of Lord and his devotee. One can question here, devotee should listen the glory of Lord, why he should listen the glory of Lord’s devotee? Here Brahma is using the term ‘bhavaDiyaVarTam’ – ‘bhavaDiya’ means Lord’s own people i.e. his devotee. Then why it is required to hear the glory of Lord along with the glory of his own devotee?
Great saints tell us that the glory of Lord is ‘MahaUshadhi’ supreme medicine. It is told that ‘Harinam MahaUshadhi’, Name of Sri Hari is great medicine.
HariNam MahauShodhi biDhan Koila |
Jiber MayaPitta Bikar ghuChaiBar laagi -
HariNam MahauShodhi biDhan Koila |
Gauranga Nidani amar –
HariNam MahauShodhi biDhan Koila |
The great medicine of HariNama is prescribed
In order to destroy the material illusion of Maya disease of Jiva,
The great medicine of HariNama is prescribed
My doctor Gauranga
has prescribed the great medicine of HariNama
The glory of Lord is supreme medicine, and the glory of devotee is ‘anupan’ i.e. tonic or vitamin, which works along with supreme medicine to restore the life of devotee. When doctor prescribes any medicine for his patient he also suggests certain vitamins or tonics along with the main medicine. The types of these tonics or vitamins are different for different types of medicines aimed to cure specific disease. The main medicine may not function properly or it may leads to certain side effect, if one takes it alone, but it will definitely work properly along with these tonics or vitamins. Likewise to cure the Jiva’s Maya disease, Hari Katha Gaura Katha acts as supreme medicine, but glory of Lord’s associates works as vitamins or tonic. One should listen Hari Katha by mixing with glory of his beloved devotee. Because the Lila of Lord, is transcendental, beyond the reach of human. Jiva can never act according the behavior of Lord.
Sri Sukdev Goswami has said,
IswaRaNang bachaH satyaM taThyBacharanam kchchitH |
One should obey the word of Lord, listen and chants the Lila of Lord, but no body should behave like Lord. But one can listen, chant and can follow the behavior of Lord’s devotee. One should follow and imitate the act of devotee. This is the correct path. It is told in scripture –
Mahajon jeno gataH saH panthaH |
Path taken by great saints is the right path.
Srila Narattama Thakur Mahasaya says –
MahaJoner Jei Path Tate Habo AnuRat
Purbapar kariya bichar |
Sadhan Smaran Lila TahateY na koro hela
Kaymoney koriya susar ||
The path of great saints I will employ myself to follow that path
Judging before and after
Worship and remember the pastimes of Lord without neglect
By your body and soul
The glory of Lord’s devotee is more helpful to Jiva. This is the reason Brahma is using the term ‘bhavaDiyaVarTam’, Brahma also has used another term ‘sanMukhariTam’, that means this glory of Lord and his devotee should be ‘sanMukhariTam’, in other words one should listen the glory of Lord and His devotee from the lips of Sadhu, Guru and Vaishnava. It will not work if one listens these glories from the mouth of a non-devotee. For example we drink milk to attain bodily strength, but if the tongue of a snake touches that same milk, that milk will work like poison. Now one can question why it is required to hear the Hari Katha from the mouth of saints? Sadhu will tell from the scripture, from sastra. One can read these scriptures by himself – where is the necessity to listen the same from the mouth of Sadhu? This is not correct argument. Because though it is true that sadhu would only talk from sastra, scriptures, nowhere else, but they would tell not only the words from sastra – as saints follows the words of scriptures for their own sadhana, by their process of worship they experience that, they realize directly and thus when they mix their own realization and experiences with the word of sastra while delivering the Hari Katha, then that becomes extremely powerful and that acts more on devotee. By the help of mundane example this would become clearer. Beneath a Banyan tree one can find numerous small Banyan fruits, which has small seeds. Though all the required ingredients to germinate these seeds like soil, water, air and light are available beneath the Banyan tree, but we do not see appearance of new Banyan saplings likewise under that big tree. But we can see the saplings of Banyan tree are coming out in existence on edge of roofs of house, on top of walls, which are far from the main Banyan tree, and where those required ingredients for germination are absent, or rarely present. How this is possible as in those places the main ingredient, soil is absent? The reason being when fruits of banyan tree are consumed by birds, these seeds of fruits are then mixed with the saliva of birds, thus digested, transformed and transferred to remote location such as roof of houses, top of wall in the form of stool by those birds, thus those dormant seeds becomes so powerful that even without the presence of soils it can successfully germinate new saplings even on stone. Likewise great Devotee, Sadhu and Vaishnava practices the words of scripture in their devotional life, they digest those words in their mind, realize by their direct experiences, thus their realization blends with these words in their heart and when they again reveal those words by uttering from their lips, the power of those words increase so much that if it enters into the ear of a great sinner, he receives deliverance at once. Bhagavan Sri Kapil dev said Hari Katha from the mouth of great saints acts as chemical in the mind and heart of Jiva. Thus it cures the diseases and weakness of mind and ears, and gives them required strength. Example of diseases of ears are interest or ‘ruci’ in hearing mundane talk of wealth and property, blaspheme others and interest in hearing own appreciation and similarly example of weakness of ears is not able to listen Hari Katha for long time, as a weak patients who can not walk for long time. Weak man requires intermittent rests while walking. Likewise not able to hear HariKatha for long is the symptom of weakness of one’s ear. By hearing the HariKatha from the lips of Sadhu, will cure the diseases of ears as well as it will remove its weakness. Then one’s ear would not be interested in listening talks about mundane wealth or ‘bisoy’, if that happens then one can understand that diseases are cured and similarly when the ears would be interested in listening HariKatha for long time, it would indicate that its weakness is also vanished. This is all about the ears; it is true for the mind as well. The disease of mind is thought of materialistic wealth, and symptom of its weakness is not able to think about Lord for longer time. The benefit of listening the glory of Lord from the mouth of sadhu will cure the diseases of mind and it will strengthen the mind by removing its weakness as well. That is why Brahma is telling, ‘sanMukhariTam’ – hearing the glory of Lord and His devotee from the mouth of saints is taken by ‘Bhakta’ as the easiest way to sustain their life.
Devotee has chosen these two easiest paths to attain his Lord. Now Brahma has talked about listening the Hari Katha. But in which way one should listen Hari Katha? Is it dependent on the person who is about to hear Hari Katha? Is that person independent? In other words can he listen Hari Katha according to his own will? Brahma is answering here, “No, here the person, who wants to hear Hari Katha is not independent.” Here Goddess of Hari Katha is the controller as she is supremely independent. Thus the Master of language, speaker of Veda Brahma has used term ‘sruTiGaTam’ – here Hari Katha is supremely independent, if Hari Katha mercifully enters into the ears of devotee then he can listen, otherwise not. Here one can think – How this is possible? If I sit near the Sadhu, Vaishnava while they are delivering Hari Katha, why I would not be able to listen this? Great saints are telling us – in spite of sitting near the place of Hari Katha, until and unless one receives the mercy of Hari Katha he would not be able to listen it. He would feel sleepy or he would think something else, eventually Hari Katha will be finished but he will not be able to taste a single drop of this. Then what is the remedy, solution? The solution is before sitting for listening Hari Katha one should pray to Goddess of Bhakti, Bhakti Maharani – ‘Hey Goddess Hari Katha, please mercifully enter into my ears’. This is the significance of the usage of term ‘sruTiGaTam’.
Now here comes another question – From which place one should listen Hari Katha? Brahma is answering,”‘SthaNeSthiTaH’ – from one’s own place, here own place means from his own ‘ashram ’.” In other words a ‘BrahmaChari’ or a celibate should listen Hari Katha from his ‘BrahmaCharya’ ‘ashram ’, likewise a householder from his householder ‘ashram ’, ‘BanPrasthi’ from his ‘BanPrastha’ ‘ashram ’ and a ‘sanyasi’ from his ‘sanyas ’ ‘ashram ’. In order to listen Hari Katha it is not required to abandon his own ‘ashram ’, it is not required to go to forest or mountain. Also Hari Katha is not available at forest or at mountain.
Sri Jiva Goswami Pada has commented on Brahma’s term ‘SthaNeSthiTaH’ as –
In order to attain Hari Katha one should associates himself with devotee, sadhu and vaishnava. Hari Katha is not available everywhere, but only near the sadhu. Taste depends on one’s own type. Wealthy people talks only about wealth, devotee talks only about Lord. One can find rotten meat at the place of dog, while at the place of lion one can expect to find pearl of elephant, ‘GajaMukta’, as after killing elephants, lion keeps the pearl of the elephant to his own cave. Likewise one would find rotten talks of wealth near a wealthy people, while precious Hari Katha near sadhu. Hence Srila Narattama Thakur Mahasaya is telling –
Vaishnav sangetey mon Anandita anukhkhon
SadaH hAy Krishna paraSanGa |
My minds in the association of Vaishnava remains in happy state every moment
Always feels the association of Krishna |
Thus we can see without any judgment only by bowing down the head, offering pranam obeisance with body, word and mind and making the listening of the glory of Lord and His devotee as the only way to sustain the life – whoever has adopted these two easiest methods, can attain Lord easily.
Sri BalaGopal is asking again by his silent eyes,” Brahman, as you said I can understand my devotee has adopted these two easiest methods to attain me. But how they receive me?”
Brahma is replying,” Prabhu, by adopting these two easiest paths your devotee can win you by body, word and soul, Prabhu, thus your devotee can control you totally.” The term ‘taNuVanManoBhir’ has been used earlier along with ‘naManTya’ pada to explain devotee bows down their head and offers obeisance with body, words and soul. Here commentator Sri Sanatan Goswami Pada has attached ‘taNuVanManoBhir’ pada with the pada ‘JitaH’ present in this verse. Sri Goswami Pada explained devotee wins Lord by body, word and mind. Meaning of winning by body means Lord always remains present side by side with his devotee by his body, ‘Sri Deha’. As we see in this mundane world, a mother by the virtue of her enormous parental love always remains present with her child by her body, it is not very common to see if child fells down, mother is not able to rescue him. If this is possible in this material world, then it is quite obvious that Lord, possessor of million times greater parental love will always present with his devotee by his body. This is the meaning of winning Lord by body.
Now winning Lord by words means, the Lord only sings the glory and the qualities of his devotee, nothing else. It is said –
HariDaser Gun GaiTey Prabhu HoiLa PanchaMukh
In order to sing the glory of Hari Das, Lord expanded his mouth from one to five.
Gaura Chandra is not getting satisfaction at all by singing glory of his beloved Hari Das by one mouth, thus He is asking,” Five faced ‘Panchanan’ please come, help me in singing the glory of Hari Das by five mouths, once I do that may satisfy me.” This is winning the Lord by His words.
Winning the Lord by mind, has been already declared by Lord Vaikuntha Natha Sriman Narayan near Rishi Durbasa -
Sadhavo hriDayam maHyam sadhunam hriDayamtwaHyam |
-Srimad Bhagavatam 9/4/68
In the episode of Maharaja Ambarish, Lord Vaikuntha Natha Sriman Narayan said to Rishi Durbasha,” Rishi, the heart of my devotee is the heart of mine and likewise my heart is the heart of my devotee. Devotee saints always give their heart to me, in order to reciprocate properly, I also give my heart back to them.” This is called winning Lord by mind and soul. This type of winning of Lord by body, words and mind is called supreme dependence, total control of Lord. There is difference between dependant and under total control by others, which is supreme dependence or ‘paradhinata’. If somebody says by word I am dependent on you, but does not accept it by his mind or by his behavior then it may be called as dependence, but it is not the case of supreme dependence or under total control by others or ‘paradhinata’. But if one accepts this dependence by words, mind and behavior, only then it can be referred as supreme dependence, or under total control. Lord has said to Rishi Durbasha,
Aham bhaktaParaDhinaH |
The meaning of this ‘ParaDhinaH’ is Lord is winnable and controllable by body, words and soul. That is why Brahma is saying,”Prabhu, your devotee wins you by ‘taNuVanManoBhir’ body, words and mind, and this is the ultimate result of following easy path of Devotion”.
Winning Lord in this way is not a small achievement at all, but his devotee can do this very easily – only by following two ways: bowing down the head, offering pranam obeisance with body, word and mind and making the listening of the glory of Lord and His devotee as the only way to sustain the life.
Here speaker of Veda, master of languages, Brahma is addressing Lord, as ‘aJita ‘, which means non-winnable, but simultaneously Brahma is also telling - your devotee wins you by body, words and soul. Then Sri BalaGopal pointed out flaws in the conclusions of Brahma. Commentator Sri Sanatan Goswami Pada is taking the role of advocate and arguing on the behalf of Sri BalaGopal, ”Brahman, what you are talking about? Sometime you are telling that I am supremely independent and thus non-winnable, again sometimes you are telling I am winnable by my devotee by body, words and mind? How can I become both winnable and non-winnable? Accepts either one, non-winnable or winnable. Why you are making such contradictory statements?” Then Brahma is replying,”Prabhu, there is no flaws in this conclusion. I have not committed any error. As your devotee wins you by the power of devotion, and there is no difference between your true identity and the identity of Goddess of Devotion ’Bhakti Maharani’. Thus your devotee wins you by the virtue of your identities and qualities by their devotion. As they win you by your grace, the meaning of your name ‘aJita’ remains unharmed. Thus you are non-winnable; again as your devotee wins you, you become winnable. If somebody by the use of his right hand holds his left hand nobody can claim this as bondage. Similarly when your devotee wins you by the power of devotion, which is your own true quality, you remains same as ‘aJita’ but your devotee can win you.”
Thus Brahma concluded, and Lord remains silent. As Lord did not protest then we should understand Lord has approved Brahma’s conclusion. So this is the conclusion of Brahma and approved by Lord, thus conclusion has great value.
(To be continued, Please do not post reply here)