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Why Did Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Come? - and What Did He Come to Give?

Jagat - Sat, 10 Jul 2004 02:01:27 +0530

Why Did Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Come
and What Did He Come to Give?

by Gadadhar Pran Das

zrI-zrI-gaura-gadAdharau vijayeyAtAm

The practice of sadhana bhakti that is directed to pleasing Lord Sri Krishna should be cultivated both externally and internally.

Both external and internal practices are important, and are meant to be performed simultaneously.

The preaching of the Holy Names of the Lord in context with the sankirtan movement of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu forms the external reason for the Lord’s descent into this world, according to Srila Krishna Das Kaviraj in his Chaitanya Charitamrita.

The internal reason that Krishna Das Kaviraj takes to be the main cause for Sri Krishna Chaitanya’s avatar will be discussed in this essay.

prema nAma pracarite ei avatAra
satya ei hetu kintu eho bahiraGga
Ara eka hetu zuno Ache antaraGga

It is a fact that this avatar of Sri Krishna has come for the purpose of giving prema in connection with the preaching of the Lord’s holy names. But this is the external reason for the Lord’s appearance.

Now please listen, for there is another reason, which is deep and internal. (CC 1.4.5-6)

Five hundred years ago, Svayam Bhagavan Vraja-vihari Sri Krishna incarnated on the bank of the Ganges River in Sri Nabadwip Dham, West Bengal, India.

In this avatar as Sri Chaitanya Deva, he brought about a new upsurge or spiritual renaissance into the world of Krishna bhakti. Covering his opulences, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu accepted the role of a devotee of Sri Krishna in order to fulfill three most esoteric desires that was not able to relish as the Supreme Lord of Goloka Vrindavan.

In transcendental loving reciprocation between the Lord and his devotees, it is a fact that the servitor can experience an even greater multitude of ambrosia through service to the Lord than the Lord experiences himself. For this reason, Sri Krishna wanted to sample for himself what it is like to be a servitor of Sri Krishna. To do so he appeared in this world from the womb of Mother Sachi, just as the moon rises from the ocean. Then, by taking on the mood and complexion of his topmost devotee, Srimati Radharani, he proceeded to taste three most internal esoteric desires that were still unfulfilled—

(1) What is the depth or extent of the prema Radha possesses for me?
(2) And with her prema how does Srimati Radharani view my spectacular sweetness?
(3) And when she realizes the depth of my incredible sweetness, what does it taste like to her?

This is the meaning of the sixth sloka in the Chaitanya Charitamrita, which Srila Krishna Das Kaviraj extracted from the confidential diary of Svarupa Damodar Goswami, the personal secretary of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

That sloka is as follows:

zrI-rAdhAyAH praNaya-mahimA kIdRzo vAnayaivA-
svAdyo yenAdbhuta-madhurimA kIdRzo vA madIyaH
saukhyaM cAsyA mad-anubhavataH kIdRzaM veti lobhAt
tad-bhAvADhyaH samajani zacI-garbha-sindhau harInduH

Lord Krishna has appeared as Lord Chaitanya out of the womb of Sachi Devi, like the moon appears from the ocean; endowed with the loving mood of Srimati Radharani Herself, He has come in order to fulfill three desires: to know the glories of Radha’s love for Him, to relish His own beauty and sweetness through Her eyes, and to experience the happiness She feels through Her love for Him. (CC 1.1.6)

Krishna Das Kaviraj begins his explanation of this verse in the fourth chapter of Chaitanya Charitamrita with the following words:

je lAgi avatAra kahi se mUla kAraNa
prema rasa niryAsa karite AsvAdaana
rAga mArga bhakti loke karite pracAraNa
rasika zekhara kRSNa parama karuNa
ei dui hetu haite icchAra udgama

Now let me speak about the principal reason for Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s appearance: (1) to personally taste the essence of prema rasa, and in connection with this, (2) to distribute raganuga bhakti to the devotees. (1.4.13-15)

From these two main internal desires, Sri Krishna, who is the chief of all rasika persons and supremely merciful, has advented himself as Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

With the help of Chaitanya Charitamrita, let us now have a look into the Lord’s personal motivation for coming: prema rasa niryAsa karite AsvAdaana, “to taste the essence of prema rasa.”

kRSNera vicara eka Achaye antare
pUrNAnanda-pUrNa-rasa-rUpa kohe more
AmA haite Anandita hoy tribhuvana
AmAke Ananda dibe aiche kon jana
AmA haite jAra haya zata zata guNa
sei-jana AhlAdite pAre mora mana
AmA haite guNI baDa jagate asambhava
ekali rAdhAte tAhA kori anubhava

Krishna began to consider, “I am filled with bliss, and my very body is the form of all transcendental mellows. Everyone in the universe experiences happiness through me. But is there anyone who can give me pleasure?

If there were a person who possessed hundreds of times more qualities than I myself, such a person could bring me happiness. To find a person who has more qualities than myself in this universe is impossible. Only in the case of Radha do I consider this possible. (1.4.238-41)

Krishna further elaborates:

AmAra saGgame rAdhA pAya ye Ananda
zata-mukhe bali, tabu nA pAi tAra anta
lIlA-ante sukhe iGhAra aGgera mAdhurI
tAhA dekhi' sukhe Ami ApanA pAzari
doGhAra ye sama-rasa, bharata-muni mAne
AmAra vrajera rasa seha nAhi jAne
anyera saGgame Ami yata sukha pAi
tAhA haite rAdhA-sukha zata adhikAi

Even if I had hundreds of mouths still I could not begin to describe the pleasure that Radharani experiences from my association. And I become spellbound and even forget myself when I see the pleasure she derives from our lovemaking. The guru of the rasa shastra, Sri Bharata Muni acknowledges that in loving affairs, the enjoyment of both the man (nayaka) and the woman (nayika) are equal, but he knows nothing about my Vraja rasa. The happiness I feel when I am with Radha is a hundred times greater than the joy I get from others. (1.4.254-7)

Krishna continues,

tAte jAni mote Ache kona eka rasa
AmAra mohinI rAdhA, tAre kare vaza
AmA haite rAdhA pAya ye jAtIya sukha
tAhA AsvAdite Ami sadAi unmukha
nAnA yatna kari Ami, nAri AsvAdite
sei sukha-mAdhurya-ghrANe lobha bADhe citte
rasa AsvAdite Ami kaila avatAra
prema-rasa AsvAdiba vividha prakAra
rAga-mArge bhakta bhakti kare ye prakAre
tAhA zikhAiba lIlA-AcaraNa-dvAre

I know for sure that there is one particular taste that has subjugated my mohini Sri Radha. That type of pleasure that she experiences from me drives me mad. Even though I carefully try, I am not able to experience her happiness, for just the mere scent of the sweetness of her happiness causes a great hankering within my mind.

Therefore as Chaitanya avatar, I will come to taste the sweetness of these various mellows of pream, and at the same time, I will establish what is the standard of raganuga bhakta and his bhakti through the example of my own pastimes. (1.4.261-265)

This brings us to the second point of the main reason Chaitanya Mahaprabhu appeared in this world: raga-mArga-bhakti loke karate pracAraNa, “to preach raganuga bhakti to the devotees.”

Krishna continues to speak from Chaitanya Charitamrita—

aizvarya-jJAnete saba jagat mizrita
aizvarya-zithila-preme nAhi mora prIta

In this world people are enamored of opulence. The worship or love of such persons who are conscious of my majesty is not especially to my liking.

AmAre Izvara mAne, ApanAke hIna
tAra preme vaza Ami nA hai adhIna

That person who worships me as the Supreme Lord and considers himself to be an inferior cannot conquer me with his love.

sakala jagate more kare vidhi-bhakti
vidhi-bhaktye vraja-bhAva pAite nAhi zakti

The whole universe may worship me by the process of vidhi bhakti, but vidhi bhakti does not possess the potency to give the bhakta entrance into an understanding of the Vrindavan mood.

tAhAte dRSTAnta----lakSmI karila bhajana
tathApi nA pAila vraje vrajendra-nandana

One good example of this is Lakshmi, who even though she worshiped Krishna and tried, still she could not attain to the service of the son of Nanda in Vrindavan because of her attachment to opulence.

Sri Krishna goes on to say,

mora putra, mora sakhA, mora prANa-pati
ei-bhAve yei more kare zuddha-bhakti
ApanAke ba‚a mAne, AmAre sama-hIna
sei bhAve ha-i Ami tAhAra adhIna

On the other hand, those devotees who consider me to be their son, friend or lover and worship me with pure bhakti, thinking me to be their equal or inferior, are able to subjugate me with their loving affection.

mAtA more putra-bhAve karena bandhana
atihIna-jJAne kare lAlana pAlana
sakhA zuddha-sakhye kare, skandhe ArohaNa
tumi kon baDa loka, tumi Ami sama
priyA yadi mAna kari' karaye bhartsana
veda-stuti haite hare sei mora mana

My Mother thinks I am her naughty child and sometimes binds me as her son. She nourishes and protects Me, thinking Me utterly helpless. My friends may climb on my back and say with pure affection, “What makes you think you’re so big? You and I are equals.” And if some gopi chastizes me in jealous loving anger, those words steal away my mind much more than any reverent recital of Vedic hymns. (1.4.24-26)

mo-viSaye gopI-gaNera upapati-bhAve
yoga-mAyA karibeka Apana-prabhAve
Amiha nA jAni tAhA, nA jAne gopI-gaNa
duGhAra rUpa-guNe duGhAra nitya hare mana
dharma chADi' rAge duGhe karaye milana
kabhu mile, kabhu nA mile, daivera ghaTana

By the influence of Yogamaya, the gopis will relate to me as their paramour. Giving up all varieties of religion, they worship me with deep, pure attachment. Providence may sometimes unite and sometimes separate us, but whatever the case may be, we are forever attracted and spellbound by each others’ forms and qulaities. (1.4.29-31)

Sri Krishna concludes by saying—

ei zuddha-bhakta laJA karimu avatAra
kariba vividha-vidha adbhuta vihAra
vaikuNThAdye nAhi ye ye lIlAra pracAra
se se lIlA kariba, yAte mora camatkAra
ei saba rasa-niryAsa kariba AsvAda
ei dvAre kariba saba bhaktere prasAda
vrajera nirmala rAga zuni' bhakta-gaNa
rAga-mArge bhaje yena chADi' dharma-karma

Yes, I will take such pure devotees with me and I will descend into this world manifesting such wonderful lilas that are not even known to the residents of Vaikuntha.

In this way of preaching (by tasting all the mellows of my Vrindavan associates, I shall bestow mercy on the devotees of the world, because when they hear about the pure moods and rasas of my Vrindavan associates, they too will want to join, and after giving up all other forms of religion and activity, will take to the path of raganuga bhakti. ((1.4.30-33)
Jagat - Sat, 10 Jul 2004 23:58:58 +0530
In Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu, Sri Rupa describes two types of raga bhakti, ragatmika and raganuga. The devotees that Krishna is glorifying in the verses just quoted are termed ragatmika bhaktas. They are eternally liberated associates of Krishna in Braja. Their devotion is unique and spontaneously manifest.

Raganuga bhakti is the devotion that is directed to following in the footsteps of these particular ragatmika bhakti associates, in order to be able to achieve a similar perfection. As Sri Rupa Goswami describes raganuga bhakti as a process of sadhana, or devotion in practice. It would be incorrect to label raganuga bhakti as spontaneous devotional service, which is the way Sri Rupa Goswami describes ragatmika bhakti in this verse from Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu—

iSTe svArasikI rAgaH
paramAviSTatA bhavet
tanmayI yA bhaved bhaktiH
sAtra rAgAtmikoditA

The intense and spontaneous absorption in the object of one’s adoration (iSTa) is called rAga. Devotion which is characterized by such rAga is called rAgAtmikA bhakti. (Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 1.2.272)

Note that this type of bhakti is not possible for people in this world.

Raganuga bhakti sadhana, which follows in the wake of the moods and mellows of Krishna’s eternal ragatmika Braja associates, is of two types: sambandhanuga and kamanuga. Sambandhanuga refers to the bhaktas who may choose to follow in the footsteps of Krishna’s servants, cowherd boys, or parents—who all have a specific Sambandha, or relationship with the Lord.

Kamanuga refers to those bhaktas who desire to follow in the footsteps of the Braja gopis.

The gopis have no specific relationship with the Lord. They are attracted to him especially on the basis of his supreme beauty alone. In their case, kama or desire may be refered to as the highest degree of pure love.

In the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradayas, devotees are initiated with Kama Gayatri. This is the ishta mantra for worshiping the Gaudiyas’ ishta devata, Vrindavan’s transcendental Cupid, Madan Mohan.

In this dialogue, Sri Krishna talks about four different flavours of love that are found in his Vrindavan associates, all of which he wishes to glorify in this world. These four mellows are dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura rasa.

Of these four flavours of love, however, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has directed his attention mostly to the most attractive of them, which is known as Ujjvala-rasa, or madhura-rasa. As Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is most eager to taste this type of rasa himself, similarly it is this mellow also that he is most anxious to distribute to others. We may find evidence for this in Srila Rupa Goswami’s verse, which Krishna Das Kaviraj places at the very beginning of his Chaitanya Charitamrita.

anarpita-carIM cirAt karuNayAvatIrNaH kalau
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasAM sva-bhakti-zriyam
hariH puraTa-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandIpitaH
sadA hRdaya-kandare sphuratu vaH zacI-nandanaH

Let us always see within the core of our hearts that son of Mother Sachi, whose bodily color is lustrously golden. He has mercifully come in this age of Kali to give people something that was never given at any time before: his most valued personal : ujjvala-madhura-bhakti-rasa. (Vidagdha-madhava 1.2) (CC 1.1.4)

Srila Kaviraja Goswami states in his personal commentary on this verse—

Sri Krishna Chaitanya is directly the son of the king of Braja. He is filled with all rasa, but he is especially the direct form of madhura rasa, because he descended specifically to taste this particular variety of love, and it naturally followed that all the other forms of rasa also became widely known as a by-product. (CC 1.4.222-3)

Sri Rupa Goswami has depicted Sriman Mahaprabhu as being the maha-vadAnyAvatAra, in other words, the greatest benefactor of the fallen conditioned souls, more generous than any other incarnation of God to ever appear on this earth. It is beyond comprehension how Sriman Gaurasundar has come to give the highest thing in existence to the most unworthy personas.

Chaitanya Charitamrita elaborates on this point as follows:

pUrve vraja-vilAse, jei tina abhilASe,
yatneha AsvAda nA haila
zrI-rAdhAra bhAva-sAra, Apane kari' aGgIkAra,
sei tina vastu AsvAdila

Apane kari' AsvAdaneD zikhAila bhakta-gaNe,
prema-cintAmaNira prabhu dhanI
nAhi jAne sthAnAsthAnaD yAre tAre kaila dana,

ei gupta bhAva-sindhuD brahmA nA pAya eka bindu,
hena dhana vilAila saMsAre
aiche dayAlu avatAraD aiche dAtA nAhi Ara,
guNa keha nAre varNibAre

kahibAra kathA naheD kahile keha nA bujhayeD
aiche citra caitanyera raGga
sei se bujhite pAre caitanyera kRpA yAGre
haya tAGra dAsAnudAsa-saGga

Being unable to fulfil these three desires during his incarnation in Vrindavan, Krishna took on the mood of Srimati Radharani and appeared as Chaitanya Mahaprabhu to relish this experience. By tasting these flavours himself, he would teach all of his devotees the meaning of loving devotion. In this way, Chaitanya Deva is like a touchstone of prema and it is herein that lies his unequalled generosity. He is the greatest benefactor because he does not consider who is fit or unfit to receive this wealth.

Even Lord Brahma himself is unable to taste a single drop of this ocean of confidential love that is only found in Vrindavan, yet Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has come like a cloud with a downpour of this rasa, soaking the fallen souls of this age. Is it possible to find such a merciful avatar anywhere?

Who can begin to describe his qualities? Can words be found to describe the colourful and astonishing character of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu? And even if the words were spoken, who could understand them? The person who can, however, is one who has benefited from his mercy, through the association of the servant of his servants.

There is one famous song written by Vasudeva Ghosh, the poet and eternal associate of Lord Gauranga, which carries across the clear meaning of what Sri Chaitanya Deva has come to give. That song is as follows:

jadi gaurAGga nahito, ki mene hoito
kemone dharitAm de
rAdhAra mahimA, prema-rasa-sImA
jagate jAnAto ke ?

If Gaura had not come, then alas, what would have become of us? How could we have borne life? Who would have revealed the glories of Srimati Radharani, which are the very limit of prema rasa?

madhura vRndA, vipina-mAdhurI
praveza cAturI sAr
baraja-yuvati, bhAvera bhakati
zakati hoito kAr ? (2)

The essence of all cleverness is to enter the sweet pastimes of madhura Vrindavan, but if it were not for Gaura, who would have been able to follow in the footsteps of the moods and mellows of the Braja gopis?

gAo punaH punaH, gaurAGgera guNa
sarala haiyA mana
e tina-bhuvane, emana dayAla
Ana nAhi kona eka jana (3)

So sing Sri Gauranga’s glorious qualities over and over again with an innocent heart! Is it possible to find anyone as compassionate as He in the entire ocean of material existence?

gaurAGga boliyA, nA genu galiyA
nA jAni bA kibA Ache
bAsu ghoSa hiyA, pASAna diyA
vidhAtA gaDiyAche (4)

Is it possible that anyone can sing the names of Gauranga without melting? It is only I, Vasudeva Ghosh, have not melted, for my heart has been created of stone.

Srila Vasudeva Ghosh is the avatar of Braja’s Sudevi Sakhi, who belongs to Radha’s closest group of lady friends, the eight sakhis. As a direct witness of the most confidential lilas of both Vrindavan and Nabadwip, he is in an ideal position to be an authoritative source of information.

Vasudeva Ghosh says that Gauranga has come to make known the magnanimous glories of Srimati Radharani’s prema within this world, then to reveal the path of how one can enter madhura Vrindavan, and finally to show conditioned souls how they can take up the path of following in the footsteps or moods and bhakti of the Braja gopis. This is the essence of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s mission.

Srila Vasudeva Ghosh next recommends that we sing again and again the glories of Gauranga with an innocent heart. If one can do so, then that person’s heart will surely melt when he contemplates the supremely merciful characteristics of this avatar. If one’s heart fails to melt even after hearing about Gauranga’s magnanimous nature, however, then that person’s heart must surely be made of stone.

As Vasudeva Ghosh says, “If Gauranga had not come, who would have truly known the glories of Srimati Radharani?”

Let us now turn to a brief discussion of those glories.

In Brihad Bhagavatamrita, Sanatan Goswami takes his readers on a voyage through the various levels of devotion or in terms of their dearness to the Lord. He begins with the jnani bhakta, Sri Bharata Maharaj. More dear than the jnani is the suddha bhakta, Ambarish Maharaj. More highly situated still is Hanuman, who possesses prema. More dear still are the Pandavas, who possess even more prema. Situated above the Pandavas is the chief of the Yadu dynasty, Sri Uddhava. When Sri Uddhava visited Vrindavan, however, he became completely astonished when he witnessed the superexcellent standard of prema found in the Braja gopis. At this instances, Sri Uddhavaji desired to take birth in Braja as a blade of grass, in the hope that the dust of the gopis’ lotus feet would bless his existence as they trample him in the madness of searching out their beloved Sri Krishna within the various forests of Vrindavan.

Of all gopis, however, Srimati Radharani is chief:

sei gopI-gaNa-madhye uttamA rAdhikA
rUpe, guNe, saubhAgye, preme sarvAdhikA

Of all the Braja gopis, Srimati Radhika is the best, surpassing all the others in beauty, qualities, fortune and, above all, in love.

Srimati Radharani is Krishna prema personified.

hlAdinIra sAra prema, prema-sAra bhAva
bhAvera parama-kASThA, nAma mahA-bhAva
mahAbhAva-svarUpA zrI-rAdhA-ThAkurANI
sarva-guNa-khani kRSNa-kAntA-ziromaNi

The essence of Krishna’s pleasure potency (hladini shakti) is prema. The essence of prema is bhava. The highest manifestation of bhava is mahabhava, Srimati Radharani is the very personification of this mahabhava prema. Due to this, she has all good qualities, being the topmost lover of Sri Krishna. (CC 1.4.68-69)

In his Vrindavana-mahimamrita (2.35), Srila Prabodhananda Saraswati says, “Within this material world, those

dhanyo loke mumukSur hari-bhajana-paro dhanya-dhanyas tato’sau
dhanyo yaH kRSNa-pAdAmbuja-rati-paramo rukmiNIza-priyo’taH |
yAzodeya-priyo’taH subala-suhRd ato gopakAntA-priyo’taH
zrImad-vRndAvanezvary-atirasa-vivaza-vivazArAdhakaH sarva-mUrdhni

Glorious are those persons who desire to climb out of the well of material existence and attain liberation; even more glorious are those who have dedicated themselves to the service of the Lord. More elevated again are those who have become attached to Sri Krishna’s lotus feet. Those who love the husband of the Queen Rukmini are superior again to such devotees, while more praiseworthy still are those who are dear to the son of Yashoda. More glorious again are those who have made friends with Subala’s comrade. Superior to those in the mood of friendship are those who worship the Lord as the lover of the gopis.

But lastly, the greatest and most fortunate of all are those whose thoughts have been washed away by the flood of sacred rapture emanating from the daughter of King Vrishabhanu, Radha, and who worship her above all.

What to speak of others, Krishna’s own words praising Srimati Radharani’s qualities are given in the Chaitanya Charitamrita.

AmA haite yAra haya zata zata guNa
sei-jana AhlAdite pAre mora mana
AmA haite guNI baDa jagate asambhava
ekali rAdhAte tAhA kari anubhava

If there were someone who has hundreds of times more qualities than I myself possess, then such a person could surely give pleasure to My mind. In this universe it is impossible to find such a person. I consider this to be possible only in the case of Srimati Radhika.

koTi-kAma jini' rUpa yadyapi AmAra
asamordhva-mAdhurya sAmya nAhi yAra
mora rUpe ApyAyita haya tribhuvana
rAdhAra darzane mora juDAya nayana

My form is incomparably sweet and can defeat the beauty of millions of Cupids, and even though this beauty of mine can enchant everyone in the three worlds, seeing Radharani soothes my eyes.

mora vaMzI-gIte AkarSaye tri-bhuvana
rAdhAra vacane hare AmAra zravaNa
yadyapi AmAra gandhe jagat sugandha
mora citta-prANa hare rAdhA-aGga-gandha

Even though the song of my flute attracts the residents of all three worlds, the sound of Srimati Radharani’s sweet words steals away my ears. Even though the fragrance of my body makes the whole creation smell sweet, the fragrance of Radharani's limbs captivates my mind and heart.

yadyapi AmAra rase jagat sarasa
rAdhAra adhara-rasa AmA kare vaza
yadyapi AmAra sparza koTIndu-zItala
rAdhikAra sparze AmA kare suzItala
ei mata jagatera sukhe Ami hetu
rAdhikAra rUpa-guNa AmAra jIvAtu

Even though the entire universe is flavourful because of me, the nectarean taste of Radha’s lips completely subjugates. Even though my touch is as cooling as a million moons, Radhika’s touch is able to soothe me. In this way I am the only cause of happiness in this universe, but Sri Radhika’s beauty and qualities are the very means of my existence. (CC 1.4.240-9)

If one wants to gain the favor of Sri Krishna, it is recommended all throughout the shastras that it is better to worship a devotee of Krishna rather than try to worship Krishna directly. Krishna himself is cited in the Chaitanya Bhagavata to this effect:

AmAra bhakta-pUjA AmA hoite boro

”The worship of my devotee is greater than my direct worship.”

As Srimati Radharani is Krishna’s top bhakta, those persons who wholeheartedly worship her can be said to be in the most favorable position for receiving Krishna’s mercy.

Sri Krishna says to Narada in the Narada Purana as follows :

satyaM satyaM punaH satyaM satyaM satyam eva punaH punaH
vinA rAdhA-prasAdena mat-prasAdo na vidyate

O Narada! I say to you as the highest truth, again and again, and then again and again and again: No one gets my mercy without first getting the mercy of Srimati Radharani.

To say something three times makes a statement final. Here Sri Krishna makes a double finalization.
anuraag - Sun, 11 Jul 2004 01:15:23 +0530
There is one famous song written by Vasudeva Ghosh, the poet and eternal associate of Lord Gauranga,

But the signature line (mudra) says Narahari instead of Vasudeva

narahari hiyA, pASAna diyA
kemone gaDiyAche (4)

Is it possible that anyone can sing the names of Gauranga without melting? It is only I, Vasudeva Ghosh, have not melted, for my heart has been created of stone.
Jagat - Sun, 11 Jul 2004 17:50:20 +0530
This song is credited to both Narahari and to Vasu Ghosh. I think general opinion these days favors Narahari, though I have never seen an argument telling why one is prefered over the other.

The above error is the result of scribal error. I cut and paste from my database instead of following the text I was copying. The change has now been made.
Jagat - Sun, 11 Jul 2004 19:41:22 +0530
At this point, one may ask : How does becoming a devotee of Sri Radha fit in with Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s mission?

To answer, let us take a closer look into Rupa Goswamipada’s famous anarpita-carIM cirAt verse. The main thrust of the verse is that Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is mercifully coming to give the taste of madhura rasa that has never been given before.

One may ask, “How are we to understand that before the time of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu there was no distribution of madhura rasa ? First, there is the example of the Dandakaranya Rishis, who by Lord Ramachandra’s grace received gopi forms to serve Krishna in Vrindavan. The personified Shrutis also received a similar type of perfection as we hear from the Chaitanya Charitamrita as well as the Bhagavatam. So what was Srila Rupa Goswami’s intention when he first composed this verse and put it in the mangalacharana of his Vidagdha Madhava play? And what was Krishna Das Kaviraj’s intention when he place this verse in the mangalacharana of his Chaitanya Charitamrita ?

There are three types of mangalacharana—

se maGgalAcaraNa haya trividha prakAra
vastu-nirdeza, AzIrvAda, namaskAra

Invocations are of three kinds: vastu-nirdeza—establishing the subject matter of the book, AzIrvAda—for giving benediction, and namaskAra—for giving benediction. (1.1.22)

In connection with this verse, Krishna Das Kaviraj says,

caturtha zlokete kari jagate AzIrvAda
sarvatra mAgiye kRSNa-caitanya-prasAda

With this fourth verse, I offer a blessing to the entire universe, in that the subject matter of this sloka may be given everyone by the mercy of Sri Krishna Chaitanya. (1.25)

In other words, may this madhura rasa be given to everyone.

So what exactly is the meaning of anarpita-carIM cirAt, “unoffered at any previous time”? What exactly is the unique nature of the madhura rasa that Sriman Mahaprabhu has come to give the fallen people of this Kali Yuga?

The answer to this question is that there is a new type of madhura bhakti rasa that carries with it a specific concentration on the service of the Queen of Vrindavan, Srimati Radharani. The target of this love finds itself not in Krishna alone, but in Radha and Krishna combined. This new madhura bhakti rasa has special emphasis on pleasing Krishna through unalloyed service to Srimati Radharani, this is the madhura bhakti rasa of the manjaris. This is Sri Chaitanya Deva’s special discovery (AviSkAra). And this is his special gift of mercy (karuNA-dAna).

This mellow of Radha-dasya or service to Radharani in the form of a manjari gopi is a new sthAyi bhAva (“permanent mellow”), which was not given at any time previous to Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

Sri Rupa Goswami in his BRS has name this new rasa bhAvollAsA rati.

saJcArI syAt samAno vA kRSNa-ratyAH suhRd-ratiH
adhikA puSyamANA ced bhAvollAsA ratiH

Generally, if a devotee has love for another devotee, this will be called a sanchari bhava, or a wave in the ocean of that devotee’s main concentration of love for Krishna. But in the case of madhura rasa, if a devotee’s love for Srimati Radharani permanently should be even increasingly greater than that amount of love directed to Sri Krishna, then this permanent mellow will be called bhAvollAsA rati. (BRS 2.5.128)

To give a clear meaning of this sloka, let us now have a look into Ujjvala Nilamani. In that text, Sri Rupa describes that Radharani has basically five different types of sakhis in her group. They are as follows:
  1. The parama-preshtha sakhis, i.e., the eight chief gopis;
  2. The priya sakhis,
  3. The general sakhis,
  4. Prana sakhis,
  5. and Nitya sakhis.
Sri Rupa goes on to say that amongst these various types of gopis, some have more affection for Krishna, some have equal affection for both Radha and Krishna, and some have more affection for Radha than Krishna.

To be specific, Sri Radha’s group of general sakhis, who are infinite in number, have more affection for Krishna than Radha. Next, the parama-preshtha sakhis headed by Lalita and Visakha, and the priya sakhis have equal affection for both Radha and Krishna.

From this bhavollasa rati sloka. Sri Rupa Goswami is explaining that these two types of affection constitute the most commonly known type of madhura rasa, which is termed Sri Krishna rati. We find this type of madhura rasa described in the Bhagavatam, etc. In BRS this is refered to as sambhogecchatmika madhura bhakti rasa. This rasa is born out of the desire to enjoy conjugal loving affairs with Krishna. This type of madhura rasa had indeed been given before Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

The new type of madhura bhakti rasa that Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is bhavollasa rati, which finds its shelter in the Prana sakhis and Nitya sakhis who are otherwise known to be manjaris. These manjaris have more affection for Radharani than they do for Sri Krishna, for they are Radharani’s dasis.

Raghunath Das Goswami says

AmAra IzvarI vRndAvanezvarI
tAra prANanAtha jAni bhaji giridhArI

The goddess of my life is Srimate Radharani, and I only worship Giridhari because he is the life of her life.

Another feature of this rasa is that it is permanent. That is why it is listed as a new kind of sthayi bhava, or permanent mellow.

Sri Rupa Goswami further goes on to describe in BRS that the madhura rasa of the manjaris is classified as tad-bhAvecchAtmika, meaning that these manjari gopis do not strive to be personally be united with Krishna, rather their sole intent is on service to Radharani. These manjaris derive their happiness by uniting Radha with Krishna. The sight of this and the seva that follows in its wake surpasses even the pleasure that Radha and Krishna experience.

Narottam Das Thakur writes in his Prema-bhakti-chandrika—

sama snehA viSama snehA, nA koriho dui lehA
kohi mAtra adhika snehA-gaNa
nirantara thAki saGge, kRSNa kathA lIlA raGge
narma sakhI ei sab jana

Some of Radharani’s sakhis have equal affection for both Radha and Krishna, others have greater affection for either Radha or Krishna. But don’t make the mistake of confusing these types of sakhi. Let me tell you about thase who have more affection for Radha. Let me always remain with this group and with them enjoy Krishna lila katha, for these are the priya narma sakhis (Sri Rupa Goswami’s technical term for the manjaris).

zrI-rUpa maJjarI sAra, zrI rati maJjarI Ara,
lavaGga maJjarI maJjulAlI
zrI rasa maJjarI saGge, kasturikA Adi raGge,
prema sevA kore kutUhole

Sri Rupa Manjari (Rupa Goswami) is the chief of this group, and with her is Sri Rati Manjari (Raghunath Das Goswami). There are also Lavanga Manjari (Sri Sanatan Goswami) and Sri Manjulali Manjari (Lokanath Goswami), Sri Rasa Manjari (Raghunath Bhatta Goswami), and Sri Kasturi Manjari (Krishna Das Kaviraj Goswami), and many more engaging in prema seva at Radharani’s lotus feet.

e sabhAra anugA hoiyA, prema sevA nibo cAiyA,
iGgite bujhibo sab kAja
rUpe guNe Dagamagi, sadA hobo anurAgI,
vasati koribo sakhIra mAjha

Let me engage in the service of the Divine Couple following in the footsteps of all these manjaris so closely that I will be able to understand what to do by subtle gestures alone. I will take up residence amongst them, becoming totally absorbed in Radha and Krishna’s beauty and virtue, and always passionately engage in their service.

Srila Prabodhananda Saraswati desires as follows from his Vrindavana Mahimamrita—
zrI-rAdhA-pAda-padma-cchavi-madhuratara-prema-cij-jyotir ekA-
mbodher udbhUta-phena-stavaka-maya-tanUH sarva-vaidagdhya-pUrNAH
kaizora-vyaJjitAs tad-ghana-rug-apaghana-zrI-camatkAra-bhAjo
divyAlaGkAra-vastrA anusarata sakhe rAdhikA-kiGkarIs tAH

Let me follow in the footsteps of the divinely decorated maidservants of Srimati Radharani. Their bodies have been created from the deep ocean produced by the sweet effulgence of prema that issues forth from Radharani’s glowing lotus-like feet. They are charming and clever, and their bodies are profusely lustrous at the newly arrived kishori age. They are truly the most wonderfully beautiful damsels in all creation. (VMS 2.8)

Radharani’s closest group of sakhis and known as the ashta sakhis. She similarly has eight chief manjaris who are most intimately connected with her. Although Srimati has an infinite number of manjaris, these eight stand supreme and direct all others in terms of lila seva. We can find their descriptions in works like Dhyana Chandra’s Paddhati.
  1. Sri Rupa Manjari (Sri Rupa Goswami)
    • age – 13 years.
    • bodily color – gorocana (deep yellow)
    • dress – peacock feathered
    • service – pan and foot massage
  2. Sri Rati Manjari (Sri Raghunath Das Goswami)
    • age – 13 years, 2 months
    • bodily color – lightning
    • dress – star clustered
    • service –foot massage
  3. Sri Lavanga Manjari (Sri Sanatan Goswami)
    • age – 13 years, 6 months, 6 ½ days
    • bodily color – lightning
    • dress – star clustered
    • service – lavanga mala
  4. Sri Rasa Manjari (Sri Raghunath Bhatta Goswami)
    • age – 13 years
    • bodily color – champak flower yellow
    • dress – swan white
    • service – messenger (duti)
  5. Sri Guna Manjari (Sri Gopala Bhatta Goswami)
    • age – 13 years, 1 month, 27 days
    • bodily color – lightning
    • dress – jaba flower red
    • service – water
  6. Sri Vilasa Manjari (Sri Jiva Goswami)
    • age – 12 years, 11 months, 26 days
    • bodily color – golden ketaki flower
    • dress – black, like a bumblebee
    • service –foot massage
  7. Sri Manjulali Manjari (Sri Lokanath Goswami)
    • age – 13 years, 6 months, 6 days
    • bodily color – molten gold
    • dress – red like the hibiscus flower
    • service – dressing
  8. Sri Kasturi Manjari (Sri Krishna Das Kaviraj Goswami)
    • age – 13 years.
    • bodily color – golden
    • dress – crystal
    • service – sandalwood
In the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradayas, devotional success comes by following in the footsteps of these manjaris.

In this sampradayas, Sri Rupa Goswami is the original guru (Adi-guru). From following him the term Rupanuga has sprung up. As Sri Rupa Goswami is a manjari, this is the permanent sentiment that his followers hanker for and aspire to.

Narottam Das’s song is a good example of this:

zrI rUpa maJjarI pada sei mora sampada
sei mora bhajana pUjana
sei mora prANa-dhana sei more AbharaNa
sei mora jIvanera jIvana

Rupa Manjari’s feet are my wealth; they are my worship, they are my ritual. They are what keep me alive, they are my ornament, they are the life of my life.

sei mora rasa-nidhi sei mora vAJchA-siddhi
sei mora vedera dharama
sei vrata, sei tapa sei mora mantra japa
sei mora dharama karama

They are my ocean of nectar, they are the perfection of my desire, they are my Vedic religion. They are my vow, they are my austerity, they are the mantra that I chant on my beads. They are my religious duty.

anukUla habe vidhi se pade haibe siddhi
nirakhiba ei dui nayane
se rUpa mAdhurI-rAzI prANa-kuvalaya-zazI
praphullita habe nizi-dine

Fate will be kind to me, and I will find my perfection by attaining her feet and will be able to see with my own eyes the beauty of Radha and Krishna’s form, the moon of the lily of my life.

tuA adarzana ahi garale jArala dehi
cira-dina tApita jIvana
hA hA prabhu kara dayA deha more pada-chAyA
narottama laila zaraNa

The snake of your absence has burned up my body with its poison; I have suffered this pain for so long. O master, be merciful to me, give me the shade of your feet. Narottam has taken shelter of you.

To further illustrate how this is the principal mood of our sampradayas, it should be sufficient to identify the siddha forms of some of the Gaudiya Vaishnava acharyas in the generations following the original six Goswamis in Braja.
  1. Srinivasa Acharya = Sri Mani Manjari
  2. Narottam Das Thakur = Sri Champaka Manjari (some say Vilasa Manjari)
  3. Vishwanath Chakravarti Thakur = Sri Vinoda Manjari
  4. Baladeva Vidyabhushan = unknown?
  5. Jagannath Das Babaji = Sri Rasika Manjari
  6. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur = Sri Kamala Manjari
  7. Gaura Kishor Das Babaji = Sri Guna Manjari
  8. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati = Sri Nayana Manjari
Although it cannot be conclusively ascertained for sure, there is some doubt in my mind that the great world preacher Sri Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada could have deviated from this mood, as it is unlikely that the mood of friendship (sakhya-rasa) should appear in a parampara of manjaris.
jiva - Sun, 11 Jul 2004 23:25:45 +0530
I think it's appropriate to post Gadadhara Prana Prabhuji's commentary on this sloka here.

anarpita-carim cirat karunayavatirnah kalau
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasam sva-bhakti-sriyam
harih purata-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandipitah
sada hrdaya-kandare sphuratu vah saci-nandanah

Let Sacinandana Sri Gauranga always appear illuminating within our hearts . His beautiful bodily effulgence in bright gold and He has come to bestow a rarely offered gift , His dearmost personal treasure of unnata.ujjvala-bhakti rasa or madhura-prema

Amongst rasika bhaktas there is a commonly accepted opinion that the unnata bhakti rasa that Sri Rupa refers to here means bhavollasa rati , the dasi bhava of Srimati Radharani's manjaris whose sole ambition is to unite and serve Sri Sri Yugala-kisora . We also support this vision , for through the Six Gosvamis , Sri Caitanya certainly did make this highly exalted rasa available for all . But does Sri Gauranga's remarkable storehouse of karuna end here ? Is there not more to his gift ? After all , since Rupa is praying to Sri Sacinandana in this verse and not to Sri Krsna , why would one reap the results of this benediction only in Vraja ? Since Sri Sacinandana belongs to Navadvipa dhama , wouldn't his wonderful treasure be found here as well ? For the splendid and exciting bhavas of the Nadiya nagaris can surely be labelled unnata ujjvala bhakti rasa ? Moreover , the highly confidential aspect of their bhakti and its rarity also puts it in the category of being , as Sri Rupa defines it ,
'' a gift of mercy that was unoffered for a long time '' ( anarpita-carim cirat karuna ).

In the context of this sloka , however , there is another matter that deserves pondering : Which form of bhagavan is the '' highest limit of transcedence '' ( para-tatva sima ) ? Is it Sri Krsna or Sri Gauranga ? Obviously , if Sri Gauranga's unnata ujjvala bhakti rasa gift is found only in Vraja with the manjari bhava , the Sri Krsna's form must be para-tattva sima , for Sri Gaurahari becomes only the gift's donor and not the gift Himself . Yet , on the other hand , if we adhere to the Gosvamis' versions , we shall certainly discover that Sriman Gaurahari is not only the para-tattva sima and the data siromani ('' the supreme donor '' ) , but is Himself the gift . He is the highest gift of madhura rasa personified (unnatojjvala-bhakti-rasam sva-bhakti-sriyam ) .

Sri Rupa concludes his anarpita-carim verse by offering a benediction to all : '' Let Sacinandana always appear within the core of your hearts . '' For those who really want to see Sri Gauranga within their hearts , the Gaudiya rasikacarya Sri Locana dasa prescribes the following method :

cala go sajani , piriti nagare , vasati karige mora
marama na jane , dharama vakhane , caurasi bhramibe tara
sadara duware , kapata haniya , khirki daraja khola
cala go sajani , niscinta haiye , adhare dekhige ala
alara bhitare , gorare dekhibi , nayana rakhibi tatha
se desera katha , ei dese kahile , marame paibi vyatha
se dese ei dese , mesamisi ache , ei katha na kaha kakae
se dese ei dese , aneka antara , janaye sakala loke
piriti nagare , manusa ratana , viaja sahaja ghare
dharama karama , kulera acara , sekhane jaite nare
ei dasa locana kahaye vacana , dasa dik tara ala

Oh come sakhi ! Let's go reside in the abode of love (piriti-nagara ). But be careful , for even staunch religionists cannot fathom this realm . They can go on wandering through eight million , four hundred thousand births .

But sakhi , come ! We'll latch the front door and after relieving our minds , enter a secret passage and there see a light . Aho ! Within the effulgence we shall see GorA and satiate our eyes . But don't tell anyone about Piriti nagara lest ou become sad , for people may mock you .

We'll just have to keep the news of our going a secret .Listen: in Piriti nagara , there is a jewel-like purusa and His room is easily approachable . But first one must discard dharma , karma and worldly chastity to go , for they cannot stand beside Him . Thus Locana says , GorA's effulgence fills every direction .

Here , while deeply transported in nagari bhava , Locana whispers into a sakhi's ear the means to attain Piriti nagara : ''Just relax , close your eyes and enter Gauranga's abode of love through your meditation . And when your heart is illuminated by prema , He will appear there .''

So just as Sri Rupa gives the benediction that we may always see Sri Sacinandana within the core of our hearts , Sri Locana gives more details about how this can come about . Introspective bhaktas can benefit by combining the realizations of both Sri Rupa and sri Locana , for in essence the teachings of the Vraja and Navadvipa schools of raganuga bhajana are one .

(Sri Sri Rasaraja Gauranga by Sriman Gadadhara Prana dasa , pp 118-120)
anuraag - Mon, 12 Jul 2004 01:45:45 +0530
Thanks, Jiva ji, for adding this, Gadadhara Prana Prabhuji's commentary on the sloka C.C. 1.1.4. here.
we shall certainly discover that Sriman Gaurahari is not only the para-tattva sima and the data siromani ('' the supreme donor '' ),
but is Himself the gift .
He is the highest gift of madhura rasa personified (unnatojjvala-bhakti-rasam sva-bhakti-sriyam ).

Sri Jayadeva's Gita Govinda 3.1 continuously echoes in my ears.
Jagat - Mon, 12 Jul 2004 08:23:34 +0530
Although Sri Krishna may have the reputation of being the supreme enjoyer, this is actually not the fact, because he himself admits in the Chaitanya Charitamrita.

anyonye saGgame Ami jata sukha pAya
tAhA haite rAdhA sukha zata adhikAi

In the course of our loving affairs, the happiness that Sri Radha experiences from me is a hundred times greater than mine.

For this reason, Krishna has come as the Chaitanya avatar to experience Radha’s standard of pleasure. But in Ramananda Raya’s teachings in the Charitamrita, the following verse are found—

sakhIra svabhAva eka akathya kathana
kRSNa saha nija-lIlAya nAhi sakhIra mana
kRSNa saha rAdhikAra lIlA je karAya
nija sukha haite tAte koTi sukha pAya

How can the nature of the gopis be explained in words? They don’t even desire to personally mix with Krishna. The manjaris rather direct their attention to uniting Radha with Krishna. The pleasure from this seva is said to be a million times greater than if they were to enjoy directly with Krishna themselves. (2.8.206-7)

The word sakhi in this verse particularly refers to the manjaris, or priya narma sakhis.

Ramananda Raya goes on—

rAdhAra svarUpa kRSNa-prema-kalpa-latA
sakhI gaNa haya tAra pallava puSpa pAtA
kRSNa-lIlAmRta jadi latAke siJcaya
nija sukha haite pallavAdyera koTi sukha haya

Sri Radha is the desire fulfilling vine of Krishna prema. Her sakhis and manjaris are her direct expansions, like the leaves, fruits and flowers on that vine. In the course of Krishna’s lila, if those sakhis and manjaris can sprinkle the golden creeper of Radha by uniting her with Krishna (like wrapping a vine around a black tamal tree), then those leaves and flowers automatically become nourished by that ambrosia even more than if it were poured on them directly. The pleasure experienced by the leaves and flowers is also comparable to being a million times greater than that of the golden creeper itself. This is astonishing. (2.8.208-9)

Sri Prabodhananda Saraswati further explains in Vrindavana Mahimamrita as follows:

rAdhA-nAgara-keli-sAgara-nimagnAlI-dRzAM yat sukhaM
no tal-leza-lavAyate bhagavataH sarvo’pi saukhyotsavaH ||

All the festivals of pleasure that Sri Krishna himself experiences in the course of his lila cannot be compared to a fraction of the pleasure that the manjaris experience by being submerged in the ocean of seva to the Divine Couple. (VMA 1.54)

The object for Sri Radha’s love is Sri Krishna alone, whereas the object for the love of the manjaris is Radha and Krishna combined. As Sri Narottam Das Thakur writes:

rAdhA kRSNa prANa mora jugala kizora
jIvana maraNe gati Ara nAhi mora

Radha and Krishna, the divine youthful couple, are my life and soul. In life or death, they are my only refuge.

Sri Krishna is transcendental rasa personified, raso vai saH, and Sri Radha is directly prema personified, maha-bhAva-svarUpiNI.

It is the supreme fortune of the manjaris to be able to taste the sweetness of the combination of these two ingredients first hand.

For this reason, the rasika sekhara Sriman Gaurasundara did not just stop in the matter of tasting Krishna prema from the standpoint of Srimati Radharani, but he even went as far as experiencing for himself the moods and mellows of the manjaris.

Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita elaborates as follows:

ardha-bAhye kahena prabhu pralApa-vacane
AkAze kahena prabhu, zunena bhakta-gaNe
kAlindI dekhiyA Ami gelAGa vRndAvana
dekhi jala-krIDA karena vrajendra-nandana
rAdhikAdi gopI-gaNa-saGge ekatra meli'
yamunAra jale mahA-raGge karena keli
tIre rahi' dekhi Ami sakhI-gaNa-saGge
eka-sakhI sakhI-gaNe dekhAya sei raGge

Spoken in half-external consciousness after thinking the ocean in Puri to be the Yamuna, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu lamented, “After seeing the River Yamuna, I went to Vrindavan and witnessed the water sporting of Sri Krishna. There in the waters of the Yamuna, Radharani and the other sakhis were sporting in great ecstasy with Krishna. As I was standing on the riverbank, one gopi showed me all these pastimes as they went on. (CC 3.18.79-82)

When Krishna enjoyed water sports in the company of Radha and the other sakhis, then he sometimes kisses them or touches their bodies. The manjaris, however, watch all these goings-on from the banks of the river.

In these verses from Chaitanya Charitamrita it can be clearly understood that Sriman Mahaprabhu is also enjoying the moods of the manjaris by witnessing for himself the pleasure sports of the Divine Couple. If he had been in the mood of Radharani, he would have been playing in the water with Krishna and the sakhis.

In this manjari mood, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said the following—

sakhi he, dekho kRSNera jala-keli-raGge
kRSNa matta kari-vara, caJcala kara-puSkaraD
gopI-gaNa kariNIra saGge

O my dear sakhi! Just see Lord Krishna's sporting in the water! Acting like an intoxicated elephant, Krishna’s restless lotus-like hands are moving towards the gopis who accompany him like female elephants. (CC 3.18.84)

yAhA kari' AsvAdana, Anandita mora manaD
netra-karNa-yugma juDAila

Tasting this sight is giving great pleasure to my mind. It is as if both my ears and eyes have become fully satisfied. (CC 3.18.89)

Yet another example can be found in Chaitanya Charitamrita. Once Chaitanya Mahaprabhu fainted on seeing a dune in Puri. Then, after coming back to consciousness, he related the following vision:

govardhana haite more ke ihAG Anila?
pAJA kRSNera lIlA dekhite nA pAila
ihAG haite Aji mui genu govardhane
dekhoG yadi kRSNa karena godhana-cAraNe
govardhane caJi' kRSNa bAjAilA veNu
govardhanera caudike care saba dhenu
veNu-nAda zuni' AilA rAdhA-ThAkurANI
saba sakhI-gaNa-saGge kariyA sAjani

I went to Govardhan. Why have you all brought me back here again? Now cannot see Lord Krishna's pastimes any more. Today I was in Vrindavan and there I saw Krishna grazing his cows. Lord Krishna began to play his flute. When she heard the melodious sound, Radha suddenly appeared. The sakhis cannot begin to describe the beauty of her form and depth of mood. Then Krishna took Radha alone and entered a cave. At that time the sakhis came and asked me to pick flowers. (CC 3.14.105-108)

This is an example of Sriman Mahaprabhu performing seva in the mood of the manjaris.

One day, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said the following to Svarupa Damodar and Ramananda Raya:

kRSNa-guNa-rUpa-rasa, gandha, zabda, paraza,
se sudhA AsvAde gopI-gaNa
tA-sabAra grAsa-zeSe, Ani' paJcendriya ziSye,
se bhikSAya rAkhena jIvana

The pure nectar of Krishna's qualities, beauty, sweetness, aroma, and the sound of His flute is tasted by the gopis. After the gopis partake, the five disciples may beg the remnants from them. By this process my life will be maintained. (CC 3.14.49)

Without accepting the moods of the manjaris it is not possible to taste or fathom the incomparable sweetness of service to Radha and Krishna. By tasting these mellows himself, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu fulfilled the purport of his being called, “Rasika Shekhara”, the chief of all rasika persons.
jiva - Mon, 12 Jul 2004 13:03:50 +0530
But we also have an eternal role with Gaurasundara which is equally the ultimate goal of all our spiritual practice , isn't ? Otherwise , Gaura avatara is simply meant for providing the opportunity to enter madhura Vrndavana and nothing more . Was He just ''footnote'' to Radha-Krsna lila ?

Will every jiva's eternal urge for conjugal love become satiated without taking part ? And wouldn't the Supreme Lord wish to reciprocate with those desiring to love him beyond the role of a spectator ? Because Krsna is the Supersoul in everyone's heart , the urge to love someone is inseparable from every living being'. He is atma ramana who awakens this most coveted desire within every atma . So the jiva's unending desire for amorous love does have a purpose (Vidagdha-madhava , 7.8. ) . Unfortunately , we misdirect this propensity .

( May be this thread should be split here? )
ramakesava - Mon, 12 Jul 2004 16:37:34 +0530
QUOTE(Jagat @ Jul 11 2004, 02:11 PM)
Although it cannot be conclusively ascertained for sure, there is some doubt in my mind that the great world preacher Sri Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada could have deviated from this mood, as it is unlikely that the mood of friendship (sakhya-rasa) should appear in a parampara of manjaris.

Suggesting Prabhupada was in the mood of a priya-narma-sakha, specifically, has been put forward as a resolution to this - attracting service from both camps.
Jagat - Mon, 12 Jul 2004 18:07:20 +0530
Then, secondly by distributing all of these mellows through the teaching of his chief followers like Rupa and Sanatan, to the conditioned souls of this world, he also fulfills the purport of being called parama karuna.

At this point in the discussion, let us review the original Chaitanya Charitamrita sloka which prompted this essay:

je lAgi avatAra kahi se mUla kAraNa
prema rasa niryAsa karite AsvAdaana
rAga mArga bhakti loke karite pracAraNa
rasika zekhara kRSNa parama karuNa
ei dui hetu haite icchAra udgama

Now let me speak about the principal reason for Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s appearance: (1) to personally taste the essence of prema rasa, and in connection with this, (2) to distribute raganuga bhakti to the devotees. For these two main reasons, Sri Krishna, who is Rasika-sekhara and Parama-karuna, has come in this Kali yuga as Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.(1.4.13-15)

Again and again in the books of the six Goswamis, the path of raganuga bhakti sadhana is recommended as the best method for devotees of this world to become united with Radha and Krishna in the eternal realm of Goloka Vrindavan. It was Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s inner desire, zrI-caitanya-mano’bhISTam that these matters be cultivated and not forgotten.

prabhu AjJAya kaila saba zAstrera vicAra
vrajera nigUDha bhakti karila pracAra

By the order of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Rupa and Sanatan studied very carefully the who gamut of shastric knowledge. Then they set out to preach the essence of that knowledge—the confidential mellows of Braja prema bhakti. (CC 2.1.34)

It may be said that Chaitanya Charitamrita is the main text of the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradayas. Within this one book can be found the most important verses from the Bhagavatam, the Gita, Puranas, Upanishads, and most essential of all, the teachings found in the books of the Goswamis. Chaitanya Charitamrita goes deep into the matter of understanding the mission of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, but without reading the books of the Goswamis in tandem with Chaitanya Charitamrita, it will not be possible to fathom its depths.

This is shown by the final words of every single chapter in Chaitanya Charitamrita, where Krishna Das Kaviraj declares that he follows in the footsteps of Sri Sri Rupa and Raghunath, indicating clearly where the “mahat-kripa” for understanding these mysteries is to be found.

zrI rUpa raghunAtha pade haibe Akuti
kabe hama bhujaba se jugala pirIti

When shall I become anxious to follow in the footsteps of Sri Sri Rupa and Raghunath, for it will be by their mercy that I will come to understand the conjugal loving pastimes of Sri Sri Radha Krishna.

For the average reader, these deep siddhantas found in Chaitanya Charitamrita cannot be understood. In regard to this subject matter, Srila Krishna Das Kaviraj says the following:

ataeva kahi kichu kariyA nigUDha
bujhibe rasika bhakta, nA bujhibe mUDha

Therefore let me speak some confidential words. The following discourse may be understood by the rasika devotees, but not the dull-brained.

hRdaye dharaye ye caitanya-nityAnanda
e-saba siddhAnte sei pAibe Ananda

Whoever has been able to capture Chaitanya and Nityananda Prabhu in his heart will get great happiness from hearing all these siddhantas.

The term rasika bhakta is a key word in this connection. Just like Narottam Das says in Prema-bhakti-candrika,
ei tattva jAne je, parama rasika se
tAra saGge rahibo sarvathA

This tattva can be understood by the rasika devotees, so let me remain always in their association.

Rupa Goswami also states in the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu--
zrImad-bhAgavatArthAnAm AsvAdo rasikaiH saha

One should relish the meanings of Srimad Bhagavatam and allied scriptures in the association of rasika bhaktas.

The rasika bhakta is the devotee who are ever anxious to taste the variegated mellows of bhakti rasa. For such rasika bhaktas, there is good news: There is a vast ocean of Gaura prema lying ahead, and that ocean is no mirage, as Sri Narottam Das Thakur affirms:
zrI-gaura-prema-rasArNave, sei taraGge jebA Dube
sei hoy rAdhA mAdhava antaraGga

Anyone who can dive within the waves of that ocean of nectarine Gaura prema rasa will most certainly also become a confidential associate of Sri Sri Radha Madhava.

janma karma ca me divyam
evaM yo vetti tattvataH
tyaktvA dehaM punar janma
naiti mAm eti so’rjuna

One who knows the transcendental nature of my appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains my eternal abode, O Arjuna.

Thus we conclude our short essay devoted to understanding the internal mystery of Chaitanya Deva’s appearance.

I hope this Gaura katha will bring happiness to our Vaishnava readers.

I remain praying in hopes of receiving the kripa of the rasika bhaktas.

Gadadhar Pran Das,
Sri Sri Gadai Gauranga Kunja
Sri Mayapur Ghat.