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Translations of various devotional texts.

Descriptions Of Goloka Vrindavan In The Sri Brahma Samhita - with the comments of Jiva Goswami

sadhaka108 - Mon, 08 Mar 2004 02:55:27 +0530
Descriptions of Goloka Vrdavanan in the Sri Brahma Samhita:

[snipped fo space and only with the comments of Jiva Goswami]

gokulakhyam mahat padam
tat-karnikaram tad-dhama


sahasra-patra--possessing a thousand petals; kamalam--a lotus; gokula-akhyam--known as Gokula; mahat padam--the super excellent station; tat--of that (lotus); i--the whorl; tat--of Him (Krishna); dhama--the abode, tat--that (Gokula); ananta--of His infinitary aspect, Balarama; amsa-- from a part; sambhavam--produced.


[The spiritual place of transcendental pastimes of Krishna is portrayed in the second verse.] The superexcellent station of Krishna, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and a corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Krishna.

Commentary by Srila Jiva Goswami

Next the author describes the eternal abode of Sri Krishna. He describes it as a thousand-petal lotus flower in this verse, and later, in text 56, he will describe it as a lotus flower made of cintamani jewels.

In this second verse the word "mahat" means "superexcellent" and "padam" means "station". "Mahat" may also be taken to mean "the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krishna", and "padam" may mean "His abode of Maha-Vaikuntha". In this way the meanings may be interpreted in various ways.

In popular usage the word "gokula" is taken to mean "a place of gopas". Because this interpretation is very appropriate (rudhir yogam apaharati) it should be accepted. It is this interpretation of the word "gokula" that is accepted when the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam explains:

bhagavan gokulesvarah

"The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the king of Gokula."

In the latter part of Brahma-samhita also, Gokula will be described as a transcendental realm where Sri Krishna resides with Nanda, Yasoda, and the other cowherd people. In this verse the word "ananta" means "Lord Baladeva", "amsena" means "wi th a portion of His bodily effulgence", and "sambhavam" means "is eternally manifested". This is also described in the Tantras. In this way it is understood that the abode of Sri Krishna is manifested from a portion of the potency of Lord Baladeva, who is known as Ananta.


karnikaram mahad yantram
sat-konam vajra-kilakam
prakrtya purusena ca

rasenavasthitam hi yat
jyoti-rupena manuma
kama-bijena sangatam


karnikaram--the whorl; mahat--great; yantram--figure; sat-konam--a hexagon; vajra--like a diamond; kilakam--the central support; sat-anga-sat-padi--of the eighteen-syllable mantra with sixfold divisions; sthanam--the place of manifestation; prakrtya--along with the predominated aspect of the Absolute: purusena--along with the predominating aspect of the Absolute; ca--also; prema-ananda--of the bliss of love of God; maha-ananda--of the great transcendental jubilations; rasena--with the rasa (mellow); avasthitam--situated; hi--certainly; yat--which; jyotih-rupena--transcendental; manuna--with the mantra; kama-bijena--with the kama-bija (klim); sangatam--joined.


The whorl of that transcendental lotus is the realm wherein dwells Krishna. It is a hexagonal figure. the abode of the indwelling predominated and predominating aspect of the Absolute. Like a diamond the central supporting figure of self-luminous Krishna stands as the transcendental source of all potencies. The holy name consisting of eighteen transcendental letters is manifested in a hexagonal figure with sixfold divisions.

In these two verse the author describes the primary place of the great eighteen-syllable mantra, which is worshipped by all other mantras. The yantra pattern described here is worthy of the most respectful worship. The pattern is described as a hexagon eclipsing the bija-syllable (klim) inscribed in a diamond (vajra-kilakam). The word "ca" indicates the four (catur) other words of the mantra also written in diamond around the bija-syllable. In this way the six words of the mantra are inscribed on the six parts of the hexagon.
The word "prakrti" indicates the place where the mantra is written. Because Sri Krishna is its creator, that prakrti is also Sri Krishna Himself. The word "purusa" indicates Sri Krishna in His aspect as the supreme controller. Both "prakrti" and "purusa" are this situated within the hexagon. Sri Krishna may be considered in four ways: 1. as the origin of the mantra; 2. as the syllables of the mantra; 3. as the supreme controller; and 4. as the ultimate object of worship. Sri Krishna's nature as the origin of the mantra and the supreme controller have already been described here. Sri Krishna position as the supreme controller was described in the first verse of this Brahma-samhita in the words "isvarah paramah krsnah". Lord Krishna's id entity as the syllables of the mantra will be described later in the Brahma-samhita in the words "kamah krsnaya". Sri Krishna's identity with the sacred mantra is also explained in the following words of the Hayasirsa-pancaratra:
"The wise know there is no difference between the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the mantras that contain His holy name. There is no difference between the Supreme Person and His holy name."
This is confirmed by the following words of Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.16):
"Although originally one, air becomes the five life-airs in the bodies of all living entities. In the same way Lord Krishna becomes this five-word mantra."
Sometimes Goddess Durga is also described as the supreme controller. This is also correct because there is no difference between the potencies and Lord Krishna, the master of all potencies. This is confirmed by the following words of the Gautamiya Tantra:
"Krishna is Durga. Durga is Krishna. One who sees that they are different will not become liberated from the cycle of repeated birth and death."
Durga is the personal potency of Lord Krishna, and therefore she is Lord Krishna Himself. For this reason Durga should not be considered manifested from a portion of the Lord's illusory potency Maya. This fact is confirmed by the following stat ement of the Nirukti:
"Even is one continually worships her, durga is still difficult to understand."
Durga is also described in Narada-pancaratra, in the following conversation of Sruti and Vidya:
"Durga is the supreme goddess. She is an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. She is the transcendental potency of the Lord. She is manifested from the form of Lord Maha-Vishnu.
"Simply by understanding her one immediately attains the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is not otherwise.
"She is identical with Gokula's queen Sri Radha, who possesses a great treasure of love for Krishna. By her grace the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all living entities, is easily understood.
"She is the potency of personified devotional service. She worships Her beloved Supreme Lord. Because She is understood only with great difficulty, the saintly devotees call her "durga" (difficult to understand). She is the personal potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and she is always filled with the nectar of love for Him.
"From her is manifested the maha-maya potency, the controller of all conditioned souls, who covers them with illusion. By this maha- maya potency the residents of the entire world are bewildered into thinking themselves identical with their external material bodies."
In the Sammohana Tantra, Durga herself declares:
"I am Durga. I possess all virtues. I am not different from Sri Radha, the eternal, supreme goddess of fortune."
In this way the word "durga" is explained. In this verse of Brahma-samhita the words "premananda" and "mahananda" refer to the fullest development of transcendental bliss. "Jyoti-rupena" means "self-manifested", and "manuna" means "by the mantra". The mantra is accompanied by the bija-syllable (kama-bijena sangatam). The kama-bija syllable in this mantra elaborately described in another passage where the independence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is explain.


tat-kinjalkam tad-amsanam
tat-patrani sriyam api


tat--of that (lotus); kinjalkam--the petals; tat-amsanam--of His (Krishna's) fragmental portions; tat--of that (lotus); patrani--the leaves; sriyam--of the gopis (headed by Srimati Radharani); api--also.


The whorl of that eternal realm Gokula is the hexagonal abode of Krishna. Its petals are the abode of gopis who are part and parcel of Krishna to whom they are most lovingly devoted and are similar in essence. The petals shine beautifully like so many walls. The extended leaves of that lotus are the garden like dhama, i.e. spiritual abode of Sri Radhika, the most beloved of Krishna.

Commentary by Srila Jiva Goswami:

The surrounding features of that abode are described in this half-verse. The word "kinjalka" here means "the outer petals" and "tad-amsanam" means "His parts and parcels, who are naturally full of love for Him". All this describes the realm named Gokula (Gokulakhya) which is also described in these words of Srila Sukadeva Gosvami (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.36.15):
"In this way Lord Krishna killed the bull demon Arista. Then, accompanied by Balarama and glorified by His relatives, Lord Krishna, who is a festival of bliss for the gopis' eyes, entered the village of Gokula."
The words "patrani sriyam" mean "the leaves of that lotus are the garden abodes of Sri Radha and the other gopi lovers of Lord Krishna." Because the gopis are specifically described in the mantra written in this abode, it should be understood that the word "sriyam" here refers to the gopis. Among the gopis Sri Radha is the leader. This is described in the following words of Sri Gautamiya Tantra:
"The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krishna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attraction to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."
Sri Radha is also described in these words of the Matsya Purana:
"Sri Radha is the goddess who rules Vrindavana forest."
In the Rik-parisista it is said:
"Lord Krishna always stays with Sri Radha. Sri Radha always stays with Lord Krishna."
The word "gostha" here means "the place where many large extended leaves and petals meet". Because it is like a great unbroken lotus flower, and also because it is the abode (stha) of the surabhi cows (go), the land of Gokula is also known a s Gostha.
The abode of Gokula is also described in these words of the scriptures:
"Lord Krishna's abode is a thousand-petal lotus flower. Many goddesses of fortune reside on that flower's leaves, and the gopas reside in the petals in the middle of that lotus. I worship Lord Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the ma ster of all transcendental potencies, who also resides in that lotus flower."
In this verse the reading "gosankhaih" is correct. An alternate reading "gosankhya" has the same meaning. They both mean :with the gopas". This is confirmed by the following words of Amara-kosa:
"Gopala. gosankhya, godugdha, abhira, and ballava are synonyms for the word gopa."
The word "kavataih: (within the gates) here means "in the midst of the lotus petals". The phrase "the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all transcendental potencies" here refers to Sri Krishna.


catur-asram tat-paritah
svetadvipakhyam adbhutam
oatur-asram catur-murtes
catur-dhama catus-krtam

caturbhih purusarthais ca
caturbhir hetubhir vrtam
sulair dasabhir anaddham
urdhvadho dig-vidiksv api

asabhir nidhibhir justam
astabhih siddhibhis tatha
manu-rupais ca dasabhir
dik-palaih parito vrtam

syamair gaurais ca raktais ca
suklais ca parsadarsabhaih
sobhitam saktibhis tabhir
adbhutabhih samantatah


catuh-asram--quadrangular place; tat--that (Gokula); paritah-- surrounding; sveta-dvipa--Svetadvipa (the white island); akhyam--named; adbhutam--mysterious; catuh-asram-- quadrangular; catuh-murteh--of the four primary expansions (Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha); catuh- dhama--consisting of four abodes; catuh-krtam--divided into four parts; caturbhih--by the four; purusa-arthaih--human requirements; ca--and; caturbhih--by the four; hetubhih-- causes, or bases of achievement; vrtam--enveloped; sulaih-- with tridents; dasabhih--ten; anaddham--fixed; urdhva-adhah--upwards and downwards (the zenith and nadir); dik--(in) the directions (north, south, east, and west); vidiksu-- and in the intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest); api--also; astabhih--with the eight; nidhibhih--jewels; justam--endowed; astabhih--with the eight; siddhibhih--mystic perfections (anima, laghima, prapti, prakamya, mahima, isitva, vasitva, and kamavasayita); tatha--also; manu-rupaih--in the form of mantras; ca--and; dasabhih--by ten; dik-palaih--protectors of the directions; paritah--all around; vrtam--surrounded; syamaih--blue; gauraih--yellow; ca--and; raktaih--red; ca--and, suklaih-- white; ca--also; parsada-rsabhaih--with the topmost associates; sobhitam--shining; saktibhih--with potencies; tabhih--those; adbhutahhih--extraordinary; samantatah--on all sides.


[The surrounding external plane of Gokula is described in this verse.] There is a mysterious quadrangular place named Svetadvipa surrounding the outskirts of Gokula. Svetadvipa is divided into four parts on all sides. The abode of Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are separately loalted in each of these four parts. These four divided abodes are enveloped by the fourfold human requirements such as piety, wealth, passion and liberation, as also by the four Vedas, viz. Rg, Sama, Yajur and Atharva, which deal with the mantra and which are the bases of achievements of the fourfold mundane requirements. Ten tridents are fixed in the ten directions, including the zenith and nadir. The eight directions are decorated with the eight jewels of Mahapadma, Padma, Sankha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda, and Nila. There are ten protectors [dik-palas] of the ten directions in the form of mantra. The associates of the hues of blue, yellow, red and white and the extraordinary potencies bearing the names of Vimala, etc., shine on all sides.

Commentary by Srila Jiva Goswami :

In the four verses that comprise text 5, the author describes the surrounding external plane of Gokula. The word "caturasram" here refers to the quadrangular place named Svetadvipa surrounding the outskirts of Gokula.  This Svetadvipa is ano ther name for Gokula. Although this Svetadvipa is within the boundary of Gokula, because it is a specific part of Gokula it is given a separate name. This quadrangular place should therefore be known to be the place named Vrndavana. Vrindavana is d escribed in the Svayambhuvagama-sastra, in the passage beginning "dhyayet tatra visuddhatma idam sarvam kramena vai", in these words:
"Vrndavana is filled with beautiful flowers, trees and birds. In this way one should meditate on Vrndavana."
Vrindavana is also described in the Vamana Purana, where the Personified Vedas offer the following prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead:
"In ancient times the great sages saw Your blissful transcendental form. O Lord, if You wish to grant us a benediction, then please reveal to us that same transcendental form.
"Hearing these words, the Supreme Personality of Godhead revealed to them the land of Gokula, which is beyond the touch of material energy. Within that Gokula-dhama he revealed the eternal, blissful, transcendental kalpavrksa-tree forest nam ed Vrndavana."
The words "caturasram catur-murteh" refer to the quadruple expansions of Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. "Catur- dhama catus-krtam" refers to the four abodes placed in four directions to accommodate the Lord's different pastim es. "Hetubhih" refers to the four purusarthas (piety, wealth, passion and liberation). "Manu- rupaih" refers to the mantras of the Sama, Rg, Yajur and Atharva Vedas chanted by Indra and his followers. "Saktibhih" refers to Vimala-devi and other pot encies of the Lord. The planet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is also described in these words of Srimad- Bhagavatam (10.28.10-17):
"Nanda Maharaja had been astonished to see for the first time the great opulence of Varuna, the ruler of the ocean planet, and also to see how Varuna and his servants had offered such humble respect to Krishna. nanda described all this to his fellow cowherd men.
"Hearing about Krishna's pastimes with Varuna, the cowherd men considered that Krishna must be the Supreme Lord, and their minds, O king, were filled with eagerness. They thought, 'Will the Supreme Lord bestow upon us His transcendental abode?'
"Because He sees everything, Lord Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, automatically understood what the cowherd men were conjecturing. Wanting to show His compassion to them by fulfilling their desires, the Lord thought as follows. "Lord Krishna thought: Certainly people in this world are wandering among higher and lower destinations, which they achieve through activities performed according to their desires and without full knowledge. Thus people do no know their real destination.
"Thus deeply considering the situation, the all-merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari revealed to the cowherd men His abode, which is beyond material darkness.
"Lord Krishna revealed the indestructible spiritual effulgence, which is unlimited, conscious, and eternal. Sages see that spiritual effulgence in trance, when their consciousness is free of the modes of material nature.
"The cowherd men were brought by Lord Krishna to the Brahma-hrada, made to submerge in the water, and then lifted up. From the same vantage point that Akrura saw the spiritual world, the cowherd men saw the planet of the Absolute Truth. "Nanda Maharaja and the other cowherd men felt the greatest happiness when they saw that transcendental abode. They were especially amazed to see Krishna Himself there, surrounded by the Personified Vedas, who were offering Him prayers.
In these verses the word "atindriyam" means "never seen before", "sva-gatim" means "own abode", "suksman" means "difficult to understand", and "upadhasyat" means "the people of Vraja desired that Lord Krishna would take them to His own spiritua l abode". Understanding their desire, the Lord then mercifully (krpaya) considered (acintayat) how their desire might be fulfilled (sankalpa-siddhaye). The word "janah" here means "O, My friends and relatives, the residents of Vraja". In Srimad-Bh agavatam (3.29.13) the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares:
"A pure devotee does not accept any kind of liberation, salokya, sarsti, samipya, sarupya, or ekatva, even though they are offered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead."
In either the spiritual or material worlds no devotees are said to be greater devotees than the people of Vraja. That the people of Vraja are the dear friends and relatives are described in these words of Lord Krishna:
"The people of Vraja are My friends. They have taken shelter of Me and they consider Me their Lord and master. I will now protect them with My mystic power. I vow that I will rescue them."
The word "etasmin loke" means "in this material world", and "uccavaca" means "engaged in ignorant materialistic activities, the conditioned souls rotate in various species of life, becoming sometimes a demigod and sometimes an animal", and "s vam gatim brahman" means "Overcome by ignorance, they do not understand the existence of the spiritual world". This means, "because they have no knowledge of My transcendental pastimes in this world, they remain in ignorance". Knowledge of Lord's Krishna's pastimes in this world frees one from the bonds of material ignorance. That is described in these words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.11.58):
"In this way all the cowherd men, headed by Nanda Maharaja, enjoyed topics about the pastimes of Krishna and Balarama with great transcendental pleasure, and they could not even perceive material tribulations."
From this statement of the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam we may understand that the Lord's pastimes in this world are completely unlike the ignorant materialistic activities of the conditioned souls. The words "svam loka" mean "the Goloka planet that the Lord revealed to the gopas. Because of the manifestation of the Lord's personal transcendental potency, the Goloka planet is "tamasah param" (above the darkness of the material world).
In the verse beginning with the word "satyam", the author explains that the Goloka planet is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. Here someone may protest: "Why do you insist that these words describe Sri Vrndavana? They may describe ma ny other places in the spiritual world as well." To answer this question the author speaks the next verse, where he specifically describes the geography of Vrndavana. In that verse he says, "Lord Krishna took them to Brahma- hrada (also known as Akrur a-tirtha). They entered (magna) the water and then rose (uddhrta) again out of the water, and then they saw their own abode in the spiritual world (brahmano lokam). In other words, the spiritual planet they saw was Goloka. That the word "brahmalok a" may be used to mean "the spiritual world" is confirmed by these words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.5.39):
"Satyaloka, the topmost planetary system, is situated on the head of the form. The spiritual planets (brahmaloka), however, are eternal."
Someone may ask, "What is Brahma-hrada?" The author answers this question with the words "yatrakruro 'dhyagat pura" (where Akrura was later shown the spiritual world). The author mentions this point to establish the glory of this sacred pl ace.
The word "svam gatim" means "their abode", or in other words "the planet of the gopas", the intention being clearly possessive (sasthi-vibhakti). For this reason it should be understood that the planet described here is Goloka. The use of t he word "Krishna" in the last verse also affirms that the spiritual planet described here is Goloka and not any other planet in the Vaikuntha planetary system. The Goloka planet is also described in the Hari-vamsa, where the demigod Indra says:
"Above the moon and above Svargaloka is the spiritual world of Vaikuntha, which is served by the sages and brahmanas, and which is the abode of effulgent liberated souls.
"Above Vaikuntha is Goloka, the planet of surabhi cows. It is splendid and all-pervading. Lord Krishna stays there. The great liberated souls stay there.
"We do not know of any realm higher than this. We asked grandfather Brahma and he also did not know.
"They who control their senses and perform pious deeds go to Svargaloka. They who perform spiritual austerities go to the spiritual world of Vaikuntha.
"Goloka, the realm of surabhi cows, is very difficult to attain. O hero, you are always active in service to Lord Krishna, therefore you are qualified to enter Goloka."
In these verse the author explains that Goloka is above all other planets. The phrase "svargad urdhvam" means that Goloka is above the three material planetary systems. "Soma-gatih" means that Goloka is above the moon". "Jyotisam" means th at it is above Dhruvaloka. "Sadhyas tam palayanti" means that it is not the residence of the demigods in the upper material planets. It is above that residence. Goloka is the transcendental abode of surabhi cows.
Here someone may protest: "You say this planet is all-pervading (sa hi sarva-gatah). It is not possible for a planet of surabhi cows to be all-pervading".
To this objection I reply: The influence of the inconceivable internal potency of the Supreme Lord make it possible for Goloka to be all-pervading. This all-pervasiveness is not possible for other, for ordinary places. Because Goloka is abo ve all other planets, Indra became struck with wonder to see it. His wonder is expressed by the word "api" in the phrase "tatrapi tava gatih", and it is also expressed in the phrase "yam no vidmo vayam sarve". In this way it is proved that Goloka i s not a material planet that is a residence for ordinary cows. Goloka is also described in the Moksa-dharma, Narayaniyopakhyana, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:
"Appearing in many different forms, O son of Kunti, I wander on this earth, on Brahmaloka, and on the eternal planet of Goloka."
The word "svargaloka" used in these verses of Hari-vamsa is explained in these words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.5.42):
"Others may divide the whole planetary system into three divisions, namely the lower planetary systems on the legs (up to the earth), the middle planetary systems on the navel, and the upper planetary systems (svarloka) from the chest to the head of the Supreme Personality."
In this verse the word "svarloka" means "the five planets beginning with Svarloka and reaching up to Satyaloka". "Urdhvam" means "above that". "Brahmaloka" may mean the great (brahma) planet because it is eternal and full of knowledge and b liss, or it may mean "the planet of the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Personality of Godhead". This interpretation of the word "brahmaloka" is confirmed by the following statement of Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.5.39):
"Satyaloka, the topmost planetary system, is situated on the head of the form. The spiritual planets (brahmaloka), however, are eternal."
Sridhara Svami comments on this verse in the following words:
"Brahmaloka here means Vaikunthaloka. "Sanatana" means "eternal", or "not within the realm of the created material world"."
This definition of "brahmaloka" is also confirmed by the following words of the Sruti-sastra:
"The spiritual world (brahmaloka) is the residence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."
The phrase "brahmarsi-gana-sevitah" means that the Goloka planet is worshipped by the brahmanas, Personified Vedas, the sages headed by Narada, and the ganas headed by Garuda and Visvaksena. The eternal residents of that Brahmaloka are descr ibed in the words "tatra soma-gatih" (Lord Shiva resides there with His wife Uma)."
Lord Shiva himself describes the Goloka planet in these words of the Rudra-gita in Srimad-Bhagavatam (4.24.29):
"A person who executes his occupational duty properly for one hundred births becomes qualified to occupy the post of Brahma, and if he becomes more qualified, he can approach Lord Siva. A person who is directly surrendered to Lord Krishna, or Vishnu, in unalloyed devotional service is immediately promoted to the spiritual planets. Lord Shiva and other demigods attain these planets after the destruction of this material world."
The word "soma" is a sasthi-tatpurusa-samasa as described by Panini in the sutras beginning "supam su-luk". The word "jyotih" refers to the Brahman effulgence of the liberated impersonalists. Not all transcendentalists are impersonalists, h owever. The devotees, who reject the liberation attained by "mahatmanam". The devotees are described in these words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (6.14.5):
"O sage, among many millions who are liberated and perfect in knowledge of liberation, one may be a devotee of Lord Narayana, or Krishna. Such devotees, who are fully peaceful, are extremely rare."
In the Bhagavad-gita (6.47) Lord Krishna declares:
"And of all yogis, the one with great faith who always abides in Me, thinks of Me within Himself and renders transcendental loving service to Me, he is most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all. that is My opinion." In this way the greatness of the devotees is proved. The word "tasya" means "of Brahmaloka" and the words "upari gavam lokah" refer to Goloka. The word "sadhyah" refers to the class of material demigods who protect the various directions leading to Goloka. They are described in these words of the Sruti-sastra:
"The Sadhya demigods guard the approach to the spiritual sky."
In the Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda's description of Maha- Vaikuntha it is said:
"The splendid and eternal sadhyas and visvadevas guard the approach to the spiritual sky."
In order to attain perfection in devotional service the sadhyas carefully protect the gopas, gopis, and other residents of Goloka, who are all glorified in the following prayer of Brahma (Srimad-Bhagavatam
"My dear Lord, I am most humbly praying at Your lotus feet for You to please give me any sort of birth within this Vrindavana forest so that I may be able to be favoured by the dust of the feet of some of the devotees of Vrndavana. Even if I am given the chance to grow just as the humble grass in this land, that will be a glorious birth for me. But if I am not so fortunate to take birth within the forest of Vrndavana, I beg to be allowed to take birth outside the immediate area of Vrnda vana so that when the devotees for out they will walk over me. Even that would be a great fortune for me. I am just aspiring for a birth in which I will be smeared by the dust of the devotees' feet. I can see that everyone here is simply full of K rsna consciousness. They do not know anything but Mukunda. All the Vedas are indeed searching after the lotus feet of Krishna."
The all-pervasiveness of Goloka is described in the phrase "sa hi sarva-gatah", where "hi" means "certainly" "sah" refers to Goloka, and "sarva-gatah" means "present everywhere in both material and spiritual worlds, in the same way that Lord Narayana is also present there". As the Second Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam describes Brahma's vision of Vaikunthaloka, so this passage describes the spiritual realm inhabited by the Vrajavasis.
The word "mahan" refers to the transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is described in the following words of the Sruti-sastra:
"The transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is great (mahan)".
The word "mahakasam" refers to the spiritual sky known as Paravyoma. This is described in the following words of the Nyaya- siddhi:
"The spiritual sky is manifested from the transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."
The word "tad-gatah" means "manifesting a spiritual form and entering the spiritual world of Vaikuntha as Ajamila did." "Upary upari" means "above everything else", "tatra" means "in Sri Goloka", and "tava gatih" means "where the Supreme Per sonality of Godhead, in His form as Govinda enjoys transcendental pastimes". This is not an ordinary place, but is "tapomayi", or "full of transcendental opulence". This interpretation of the word "tapomayi" is confirmed by these words of the Sahas ra-nama-bhasya:
"'Tapah' here means 'transcendental opulence'".
In the Sruti-sastra it is said:
"The spiritual sky is full of transcendental opulence'."
Because Goloka cannot be understood by the philosophical speculations of Brahma and other philosophers, the words "yam na vidmo vayam sarve" (we cannot understand Goloka) were spoken. Now we will explain the origin of the word "goloka". Thi s is given in the verse beginning with the word "gatih". In this passage the word "brahme" means "in the realm of Brahmaloka", "tapasi" means "fixing the mind on Sri Krishna", and "yuktanam" means "of the pure devotees". This explanation of the word "tapah" is confirmed by the following words of the Sruti-sastra:
"Tapah means awareness of the Supreme Personality of Godhead." "Brahmaloka" here means "Vaikunthaloka" and "para" means "beyond the influence of material energy". "Gavam" means "of the cows who reside in Vraja". These cows are described in the following words of the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam: "He protected the cows from the heat of the day."
The exalted status of these cows and the other residents of Goloka is only attained by persons who have pure love for Lord Krishna. It cannot be attained by performing severe austerities or by any method, and for this reason the word "duraroha " (Goloka is very difficult to attain) is spoken. Here the word "dhrtah" means "protected". By lifting Govardhana Hill and by performing many other pastimes, Lord Krishna protected Goloka. Goloka is also described in these words of the Rg Veda:
"O Krishna and Balarama, we aspire to attain that place where You enjoy transcendental pastimes, and where there are beautiful surabhi cows with large horns. The Vedas describe that place as the transcendental abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who fulfils all desires."
In this verse the word "tah" means "these", "vam" means "of You both", or in other words "of Krishna and Balarama", "vastuni" means "places of pastimes", "gomadhyai" means "to attain", and "usmasi" means "we desire". The question may be asked: "How may the pastime places be more elaborately described?" The answer is given in the phrase beginning with the word "yatra". "Yatra" means "in which places", and "bhuri-srngyah" means "cows with large horns". The word "bhuri" is explained in th e passage from the Upanishads :
"The word 'bhuri' here means 'great' not 'numerous'. The dictionary explains: The word bhuri means either numerous or great."
"Ayasah" here means "beautiful". This is confirmed by the Amara-kosa, which gives the following definition:
"The word 'ayah' here means beautiful'".
The word "ayasah" here uses the affix 'asah" as in the word "devasah". "Vrsnah" means "fulfilling all desires", "atra" means "in this place celebrated in the Vedas as Goloka', "urugayasya" means "of the Supreme Personality of Godhead", "bhur i' means "manifested in many ways", and "aha" means "the Vedas declares". An example of this Vedic description is found in the following words of the Madhyandina Yajur Veda:
"We aspire to go to the transcendental abode of Lord Vishnu, which is filled with many wonders."
In these words, and in many other passages of the Vedas, the realm of Goloka is described.