Discussions on the doctrines of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. Please place practical questions under the Miscellaneous forum and set this aside for the more theoretical side of it.
The Metamorphosis of the Mantra - Thoughs on Krishna-mantra and Krishna-nama
Madhava - Wed, 21 Jul 2004 18:11:14 +0530
Here are some notes patched together from my correspondence two years back on the topic of kRSNa-mantra and kRSNa-nAma. The following might need some editing, I'll get back to that later on. Jagat, as always, feel free to patch the translations if necessary.
|Mahanidhi Swami writes in his book, "The Art of Chanting Hare Krishna":|
On page 8:"“If you chant 'Paramatma! Paramatma! Paramatma!' nothing will come but thirst and fatigue."
However, we know from Harinama-cintamani that even secondary names can award liberation. Equating a gauNa-nAma with a material sound vibration is a nAma-aparAdha.
nAmnAm AkAri bahudhA nija sarva zaktis tatrArpitA
-- The Lord has revealed His various names with all of their respective potencies. Here the word "nija" can be taken to refer either to the Lord and His specific names, or alternatively to the specific potencies each name of the Lord possesses. abhinnatvAn nAma-nAminoH -- The name and the named are nondifferent. Consequently each name will contain the specific potencies of a particular form of the Lord. Chanting the name of Krishna will reveal the special attributes and potencies of Sri Krishna, while chanting the name of Paramatma will invoke the corresponding attributes and potencies of Paramatma. To state that upon chanting the name of Paramatma nothing but thirst and fatigue will come is to declare that Paramatma is impotent.
The potency of the various holy names, both primary and secondary, is glorified everywhere in the scriptures. I am quoting from Sri Jiva's Bhagavat Sandarbha (Anuccheda 49):
janma-karma ca me divyam evaM yo vetti tattvataH | iti | [GItA 4.9]
tathA nAmno vailakSaNyaM vAG-manasAgocara-guNAvalambitvena svataH-siddhatvam | tad yathA vAsudevAdhyAtme – aprasiddhes tad-guNAnAm anAmAsau prakIrtitaH iti | brAhme – anAmA so’prasiddhatvAd arUpo bhUta-varjanAt iti |
na yatra nAtha vidyante nAma-jAtyAdi-kalpanAH |
tad brahma paramaM nityam avikAri bhavAn aja ||
na kalpanAnRte’rthasya sarvasyAdhigamo yathaH |
tataH kRSNAcyutAnanta-viSNu-nAmabhir IDyase || iti || [ViP 5.18.53-54]
“He who knows in truth My divine birth and activities…” So His name also has distinguished characteristics. It is beyond the reach of speech and mental faculty, and its qualities do not depend upon anything, as it is self-perfected. This is explained in Vasudevadhyatma: “His qualities are unknown, therefore He is glorified as the nameless.” In the Brahma: “He is unnamed, unknown and formless, beyond anything which exists.”
[Vishnu Purana:] “O Lord, your name, birth and so forth are not the product of imagination. You are the supreme brahman, eternal, unchanging, ever-existing and unborn. Being the aggregate of all study, you are not the object of unreal imagination. Therefore you are worshiped with the names Krishna, Acyuta, Ananta and Vishnu.”
Having cited the verse above, Jiva goes on to explain how these names are glorified throughout the Sruti and the Puranas. Now, the names "Acyuta", "Ananta" and "Vishnu" ("Infallible", "Unlimited" and "All-pervasive" respectively) are not the kind of names we would consider to be directly related with Vraja-lila. Someone may then argue, "There are deeper meanings to the aforementioned names. Sri Krishna is addressed as Acyuta as He did not fail to fulfill the desires of the gopis on the arena of rasa, He is famous as Ananta as He danced simultaneously with every cowherd maiden, and He is the Vishnu whose pastimes pervade all the forests of Vraja, and whose love-plays with the damsels of Vraja were praised by Sukadeva (Bhagavata 10.33.39)." To this we reply, "However, such explanations can be given of each and every secondary name. In their song of separation (Bh. 10.31.4), the gopis addressed Sri Krishna as the antarAtma-dRk, the indwelling witness, which is but another name of Paramatma. Nevertheless their perception was laden with prema, ever-devoid of aisvarya-jnana." Here we are concerned with the direct meaning of the name.
The entire Anuccheda is filled with citations from the scriptures such as Rig Veda and the various Puranas about the glory of the name of Vishnu, the name of Narayana, and even the syllable "Om". Therein Jiva refutes the theory that the syllable "om" and other names of the Lord discussed would be devoid of potency, repeatedly stressing that all of His names are identical with Him.
I do not know of any source older than Bhaktivinoda for the division of names as primary (mukhya) and secondary (gauna). Bhaktivinoda himself (Harinama Cintamani, second chapter) gives examples of both names along with an explanation of the results of chanting the secondary names, as you noted. I am presenting the original Bengali text below for reference.
govinda gopAla rAma zrI-nanda-nandana |
rAdhAnAtha hari yazomatI prANa-dhana ||38||
madana-mohana zyAmasundara mAdhava |
gopInAtha vraja-gopa rAkhAla yAdava ||39||
ei rUpa nitya lIlA prakAzaka nAma |
e saba kIrtane jIva pAya kRSNa dhAma ||40||
"Primary names. Govinda, Gopala, Rama, Sri Nanda-nandana, Radhanatha, Hari, Yasomati-prana-dhana, Madana-mohana, Syamasundara, Madhava, Gopinatha, Vraja-gopa-rakhala, Yadava. Names like this reveal the nitya-lila. Glorifying them, the living entity attains the abode of Krishna."
gauNa nAma o tAhAra lakSaNa
jaDA prakRtira paricaye nAma yata |
prakRtira guNe gauNa vedera sammata ||41||
sRSTi-kartA paramAtmA brahma sthiti-kara |
jagat-saMhartA pAtA – yajJezvara hara ||42||
"Secondary names and their characteristics. All these names are related with dull matter (the creation). The Vedas agree that the qualities of the material nature are secondary. Srishti-karta (creator), Paramatma, Brahma, Sthiti-kara (maintainer), Jagat-samharta (destroyer of the universe), Pata, Yajnesvara (Lord of sacrifice), Hara."
mukhya o gauNa nAmera phala-bheda
ei-rUpa nAma karma-jJAna-kANDa-gata |
puNya mokSa dAna kare zAstrera sammata ||43||
nAmera ye mukhya phala kRSNa prema dhana |
tAra mukhya nAme mAtra labhe sAdhu gaNa ||44||
"The difference of fruits of primary and secondary names. Names like this [as in the previous verse] are present in karma-kanda and jnana-kanda. The scriptures agree that they yield the fruit of piety and liberation. The names which are primary give the fruit of Krishna-prema. The society of saints only aspire for the primary names."
Here the division Bhaktivinoda makes is clear. All mukhya-nama relate to Vraja-lila, while the gauna-nama relate to srishti-lila (pastime of creation). Interestingly, Bhaktivinoda does not classify names such as Narayana, Laksmipati and so forth. Certainly there is a further division of mukhya-nama into two categories, namely mukhya-nama leading to Vraja and mukhya-nama leading to Vaikuntha.
Now, in regards to the passage I presented from Bhagavat Sandarbha in which the names of Acyuta, Ananta and Vishnu were quoted, one may argue that these names actually belong to the category of mukhya-nama, as Mahaprabhu, quoting from Siddhartha Samhita (in Caitanya Caritamrita, Madhya 20), has presented the names of Acyuta and Vishnu among the 24 vilasa-forms of Vaikuntha. However, then we must also note names such as Janardana (He who excites the mankind), Hrishikesa (Lord of the senses), Padmanabha (He from whose navel the lotus grew) and Narayana (the refuge of all living entities, he from whom the waters of creation emanate) are certainly given on account of the Lord's contact with jada-prAkRti and attributed to Laksmi-pati of Vaikuntha.
= = =
I should note that after this correspondence I discussed the statement quoted with Mahanidhi Swami during my visit to Radha-kunda. He intended the statement as an eulogy of the sweetness of mukhya-nAma, not a strictly philosophical definition.
Madhava - Wed, 21 Jul 2004 18:13:55 +0530
|Mahanidhi Swami writes: |
Page 11: "In the Gaudiya conception, samsara-mocana, or liberation means to realize one’s Svarupa. At this stage, the Brahma Gayatri and the Gopal Mantra retire."
What about the story of Gopa Kumara who continued to chant the Gopala-mantra even after attaining liberation? I can understand that the Brahma Gayatri is retired and perhaps even that one will not chant the Gopal Mantra in such a regulated fashion (tri-sandhya, etc.) or perhaps that one may chant the mantra without klIM in the beginning, but I can not understand retiring the mantra completely. The mantra is a very rasika one, what to speak of the kAma-gayatrI.
In regards to the theme of the mantras retiring, it is true that at one point the diksa-mantras will retire. However, this does not take place at the time of svarupa-siddhi. It takes place when one takes birth in the prakata-lila in a Vraja-svarupa. As long as the body of a sadhaka is there, acts of sadhana will go on, and once the siddha-identity is all that exists, naturally one has adopted behavior appropriate for one's svarupa. In Vraja-lila, Sri Radha Herself has no diksha (Govinda Lilamrita, 11.124):
na dIkSAsyAH zikSA zravaNa paThane vA gurumukhAt |
tathApIyaM rAdhA trijagad abalA vismaya bhuvAm ||
kalAmbodheH zaurer api parama santoSaNa kRtAM |
kalAnAm AcArya vraja mRgadRzAm apy ajani sA ||
"Sri Radhika was never initiated, nor did She hear any instructions, but still She became the teacher of arts for all the Vraja-gopis, who astonish all the ladies of the three worlds with their skills and who give the highest satisfaction to Sauri (Krishna), the ocean of all arts."
Radharani Herself has no diksa in Vraja-lila. How, then, could the maidservant be chanting diksa-mantras amidst the lila at any time? At the time of siddhi, there is no more acts of sadhana, as the purpose of sadhana is fulfilled. According to Narottama, that which is contemplated at the time of sadhana will be attained in the siddha-deha. Having contemplated on the Kama-gayatri during sadhana, in the siddha-deha one will be filled with divine passion (klIM), ever-cognizant of the divine cupid of Vraja (kAmadevAya vidmahe), heart pierced by His flowery arrows (puSpabANAya dhImahi), the amorous pastimes of the Divine Couple manifest before your eyes (tanno 'naGgaH pracodayAt). In other words, the mantra does not retire as such, but rather reveals its true form, as if transforming from syllables into reality before our spiritual eyes. Call it the metamorphosis of the mantra if you will.
Madhava - Wed, 21 Jul 2004 18:15:29 +0530
|Up till the 4th chapter in the 2nd part of BB Gopa Kumar is chanting his mantra. That is even in Vaikuntha Gopa Kumar is chanting his mantra.|
Even though the mantra may not be chanted in a regulated way in the spiritual world, the chants composed of the names of God are certainly chanted in the spiritual world. For example you have Lord Caitanya’s: Hari Haraye Namah Krishna Yadavaya Namah, which is a completely spiritual kirtana. They must chant kirtana also in the spiritual world. Of course the main mantra for kirtana is always the Hare Krishna mantra but there are many other styles of kirtana, such as those taught by Narottama das Thakura. In the spiritual world they don’t throw out all chants other than Hare Krishna.
I noted that in Vaikuntha Gopa Kumara still chanted his mantra. However, at that time, Gopa Kumara still wasn't fully established in his desired relationship with Sri Krishna, and the mantra carried him forward up until Goloka Vrindavana and Vrajabhumi, giving him the darshan of the mantra-devata, the sweet Madana-Gopala of Vraja.
Certainly there is nama-kirtan and lila-kirtan in the spiritual world. In the Bhagavata (10.9.1-2) it is described:
ekadA gRha-dAsISu yazodA nanda-gehinI |
karmAntara-niyuktAsu nirmamantha svayaM dadhi || 1 ||
yAni yAnIha gItAni tad-bAla-caritAni ca |
dadhi-nirmanthane kAle smarantI tAny agAyata || 2 ||
“One day, when the servant girls of the house where engaged in other work, Yasoda, the wife of Nanda, herself churned the yoghurt. In the course of churning, she sang of the childhood activities of her son, remembering them all.”
This is perhaps the most famous among all examples. The cowherd boys also, when wandering off to the fields with their cows, fondly sing songs of their dear friend Krishna, and the gopis, while engaged in their tedious household affairs, burning in the fire of separation, try to restrain themselves from singing about Him, afraid that their relatives may hear and become suspicious. kathA gAnam!
In the abode of Govinda, every word is a song!
As for the Hare Krishna mantra, Raghunatha Das Gosvami has explained what Srimati Radharani thinks when She chants the maha-mantra. Please look at his Harinamartha-ratna-dipika for further information.
The idea presented by Mahanidhi Swami about Krishna-mantra and samsara-mocana is drawn from the Caitanya Caritamrita, Adi-lila, 7.73, where Mahaprabhu speaks to Prakasananda Sarasvati.
kRSNa-mantra haite habe saMsAra-mocana
kRSNa-nAma haite pAbe kRSNera caraNa
“By chanting the Krishna-mantra, one attains freedom from samsara. By chanting Krishna-nama, one will attain the lotus feet of Krishna.”
Some, like Sridhar Maharaja (Sri Guru and His Grace, chapter 9), have given a dual interpretation of this verse, stating precisely what Mahanidhi Swami has said in his book, that after liberation the mantra will retire. However, let us not miss the point that the Kama-gayatri is a nAmAtmika-mantra, a mantra consisting of Krishna's names! The context of the verse also gives no support for such a dual interpretation. Verse 83 of the chapter indicates that all the while the discussion has been on the Krishna-nama maha-mantra alone.
Madhava - Wed, 21 Jul 2004 18:21:37 +0530
My point is that the Gopal Mantra could be part of the nama-kirtana in the spiritual world. At that point it is no longer a regulated mantra but chanted out of bliss.
The proposal of spontaneously chanting the Gopala-mantra in the spiritual world would require some scriptural support. There are rather extensive descriptions of aprakata-lila (Govinda Lilamrita, Krishna Bhavanamrita, Krishnahnika-kaumudi, Sankalpa Kalpadruma etc.), but chanting the guru-given dIkSA-mantra is nowhere mentioned in them in the context of the lila.
The names of Krishna in the mantra are given in the fourth (caturthI, dative) case, such as govindAya, whereas the names of the Hare Krishna-mantra are in the eight (sambodhana, vocative) case, such as hare or kRSNa. The dative case cannot be used in directly addressing a person. Also, I cannot imagine "svAhA" in kirtan, what to speak of vidmahe, dhImahi or pracodayat.
In which situation would you envision such kirtan as taking place? Of course the names can still appear in the same sequence in kirtan. For example: "Krishna Govinda Govinda Gopala, Gopijana-vallabha Vamsi-Gopala".
In regards to the mantras, it is a well-known point that they are nAmAtmaka. This is presented in Jiva's Bhakti Sandarbha, Anuccheda 284:
nanu bhagavan-nAmAtmakA eva mantrAH | tatra vizeSeNa namaH-zabdAdy-alaMkRtAH zrIbhagavatA zrImad-RSibhiz cAhita-zakti-vizeSAH zrIbhagavatA samam Atma-sambandha-vizeSa-pratipAdakAz ca | tatra kevalAni zrIbhagavan-nAmAny api nirapekSANy eva parama-puruSArtha-phala-paryanta-dAna-samarthAni | tato mantreSu nAmato'py adhika-sAmarthye labdhe kathaM dIkSAdy-apekSA | ucyate | yadyapi svarUpato nAsti tathApi prAyaH svabhAvato dehAdi-sambandhena kadartha-zIlAnAM vikSipta-cittAnAM janAnAM tat-tat-saMkocIkaraNAya zrImad-RSi-prabhRtibhir atrArcana-mArge kvacit kvacit kAcit kAcin maryAdA sthApitAsti | tatas tad-ullaGghane zAstraM prAyazcittam udbhAvayati | tata ubhayam api nAsamaJjasam iti tatra tat-tad-apekSA nAsti |
“Indeed the mantra consists of the names of Bhagavan. Therefore the mantras chanted by great devotees and sages are characterized with the ornamented ‘namah’ and contain special potency nondifferent from Sri Bhagavan, and they cause one to obtain a special relationship with the Lord. Therefore the mere chanting the name of Bhagavan is sufficient for attaining the fruit of the supreme goal of life. Someone may say, ‘Then if the name is sufficient for attaining the goal, can diksa and so forth be rejected?’
To this it is said: ‘Although essentially there is no need for this, due to a connection with the material body and so forth people are engaged in unmeaningful acts which agitate the consciousness. For overcoming this, the sages have established the path of arcana-marga through which one attains the proper standards. To overcome this, the scriptures present preparatory deeds. Therefore it is improper to reject either of the two.”
Here Jiva also makes the point that although the names in themselves are sufficient, their combination into mantras embellished by "namaH", "svAhA" and so forth are necessary in the context of arcana for the embodied souls. Without the mantra-bIja and svAhA the Gopala-mantra is no longer "mantra" in the sense of its being a constituent of arcana, though the potency of the nAma is obviously intact.
I would suggest that as there is no arcana-vidhi in the aprakata-lila, similarly there are no mantras related with arcana-vidhi there.
Perumal - Thu, 22 Jul 2004 11:33:42 +0530
|QUOTE (Madhava @ Jul 21 2004, 12:45 PM)|
|Aranya Maharaja taught us there is no chanting of maha-mantra in the spiritual world.|
In eternal Nabadwip Sri Gauranga engages in kirtan every night in the house of Srivas. Who would think that no devotee in that sangha will ever say Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare
Another thing that comes to mind is that the Gopis made a sankirtan when they found that Gopinath had vanished while they were doing rasa-lila. Those divine ladies were with their loving friends, they were all together, but feeling very much alone, and they were running through the forest, singing Hari's names, searching for Sri Krishna, reality the beautiful.
Keshava - Thu, 22 Jul 2004 11:55:10 +0530
I agree that there is no arcana in Goloka in the sense that there is no acra avatara or deity there. No need (Paravasudeva) Krsna the original form of the Lord is there.
The Gopal mantra is described as hexagonal and representing Goloka in Brahma Samhita. In fact verses of 5.2 - 5.4 give a description of Goloka which reads like the descriptions used in pitha puja or manasa puja in arcana in Pancaratra texts. Then of course Brahma is born from the lotus and is instructed in this mantra by Sarasvati. He uses it as an aid for meditation and thus realizes the transcendental abode by it, because it is non different from it.
So it would seem that the Gopal mantra is how Goloka manifests to us. In other words we can understand Goloka here by meditation on Gopal mantra following Brahmas tapas. So it would not make sense for the mantra to be used in Goloka because Goloka IS the mantra and the mantra IS Goloka. Therefore when one is in Goloka or on that plane, the mantra is not manifest as a mantra but as the realm itself.
Reading on in the Brahma Samhita we see Kama gayatri given by Krsna to Brahma. In this case the mantra is said to be the "flute song" of Krsna which in the form of the Kama gayatri mantra entering the eight ears of Brahma. So as with the Gopala mantra the Kama gayatri IS Krsna's flute song which is manifest to us here on this plane as a mantra.
Interesting how Brahma gets Gopala mantra from Sarasvati (described as a consort of the Lord obviously representing the Cit potency as does the guru in our case). By the way, Aim is Sarasvati bija and is indicitive of Cit or knowledge, that is why it is used in Guru mantra and Guru gayatri. But the interesting part is that She (a divine female mediatrix) first initiates Brahma with the Gopala mantra which he uses to meditate on and then later as a result of realizing the divine Dhama Goloka and Radha Krsna in it's center he gets the Kama gayatri by which he realizes that he is a "divine maidservant" of Krsna. Why would he realize that he was a maidservant by hearing kama gayatri? Because it is the sound of Krsna's flute. So naturally when he heard it or meditated on it in the form of the Kama gayatri mantra, it had the same effect on him that it did on the gopikas when they heard it. In other words when you hear the flute song of Krsna you will realize that you are a gopi.
Just some thoughts.
Conclusion: In Goloka there is no mantra per se. Gopal mantra IS Goloka, and Kama gayatri IS Krsna's flute song. Due to directly associating with Krsna and others in Goloka one simply has to use sambodanam vibhakti for direct address so all speech will therefore be harinama.
PS If you woulld like some more examples of vibhakti bhakti let me know. I know a couple of slokas that are styled vibhakti bhakti because they contain the name of God in all eight cases.
anuraag - Tue, 05 Jul 2005 00:12:14 +0530
Aranya Maharaja taught us there is no chanting of maha-mantra in the spiritual world.
(Originally posted by Jagadananda dasa on indiadivine.com in Feb 2001)
("Illumination on the jewels of meaning in the Holy Name.")
Srila Raghunatha Das Goswami
One day, Radha was feeling separation from Krishna and was meditating on the reunion she hoped to have with him.
In order to rid herself of the depression she felt in his absence, she began to repeatedly chant his names.
Hare Krishna Hare Krishna
Krishna Krishna Hare Hare
Hare Rama Hare Rama
Rama Rama Hare Hare
O Hare! You steal my mind with your sweetness.
With her first utterance of the name Krishna, she explains how it is possible for him to steal her mind.
The name Krishna comes from the combination of the syllables kRS, which means everything, and Na, which means an identity steeped in bliss.
Thus Krishna is the form of eternity, knowledge and bliss who attracts and tempts everyone in every direction with the supreme joy of his own being, a joy which is superior to any other.
So, Hari, you take away even my most strongly held character traits, like self-control, shame, and fear of my superiors.
Then, Krishna, you draw us out of our houses and into the forest.
Then, when I have entered the woods, you suddenly appear out of nowhere and start pulling on my blouse.
Then, Krishna, you start touching my breasts.
Then, O Hari, you wrap me in your arms and lead me off to the bed of flower petals.
Then, O Hari, while I am sitting there helplessly, you tear off my skirt as well.
And so, O Hari, by taking my clothes off my body, you take away all the sufferings accumulated in my soul as a result of my separation from you.
Then, O Rama, you enjoy with me to your full satisfaction.
By so doing, O Hari, whatever little recalcitrance was left in me, that too was stolen by you.
And so, O Rama, I become so frenzied with passion that I take the initiative in lovemaking, like a man.
Then, O Rama, you who are the crest-jewel of the charming! Without any interference, I can now relish the beauty of your youthful face, indeed the very beauty of your very soul with both of my eyes.
Then O Rama, not only do you engage me in lovemaking by actively taking the role of a lover, even though this is true. It is as though you were also incarnate in the very act of love itself as its essence.
Then, O Hari, you who are like a lion, capture the deer of my mind. In other words, your loving makes me faint.
Because you are a lion, O Hari, you have shown such self-confidence, proficiency and boldness in the art of love.
Being separated from you, my dearest lover, it seems that even a moment is like a million millennia. How then will I be able to suffer through this age-long separation? Please consider this fact.
This is the summary meaning of the sixteen names of the Mahamantra. Having chanted them in this spirit, Krishna is attracted by Radha's chanting of these magnet-like names and he suddently appears to experience the ecstasy of union.
May the Divine Couple, Sri Sri Radha and Krishna fulfill the desires of her sakhis, his cowherd friends, as well as of all those who today are engaged in the practices of devotional service in the hope of one day attaining the same mood of love.
“ Once, Radhika tried to stop the tears She cried out of separation from Krishna by meditating on Him and constantly repeating these names of Him: hare krishna, hare krishna, krishna krishna, hare hare, hare rama, hare rama, rama rama, hare hare.” Hare nama sravana matrena mama mano harasi: “ Hare! You steal My mind when I simply hear You name.” krishna vamsi vadyena grhad vanam mamakarsasi “Krishna! By playing Your flute You attract Me from My house into the forest.” hare lajja dharyadhikam harasi “Hare! You steal My shame and My patience!” krisna sanga saurabhyena mamakarsasi “Krishna! You attract Me with Your bodily fragance!” krisna sanga lavanyena pralobhya mamakarsasi “Krishna! With Your bodily luster You attract Me and make Me greedy!” krishna sarvadhikanandena pralobhya mamakarsasi “Krishna! With Your supreme bliss You attract Me and make Me!” hare sva bahu nibaddham mam puspa-sayyam prati nayasi “Hare! You bind Me in Your arm and take Me to a bed of flowers!” hare tatra nivesitaya me antariyam balat harasi “Hare! There You take off My undergarments!”
Jagat - Tue, 05 Jul 2005 07:48:50 +0530
Om ! Sriji ! Purushottam!
O Krishna ! Crusher of sin !
You pull me with this mantra
like a baby calf led by the nose,
like a deer enchanted by the hunter’s flute.
Here in the forest, black as your skin,
I come to you.
O Govinda !
You invade me with your mantra
you cling to me like a second skin
you weigh down my senses
with unbearable expectations.
You are in the Veda and in the cows,
You are in the world and in my senses.
You are in the mantra,
and still I must search for you.
O Gopijana ! O Radha ! O sakhis !
You flutter on every side of the mantra
like petals, effulgent and infinite.
You stand in the heart of the mantra
like pistils, golden guardians of the mead.
You are my gurus, I follow you,
I join you in your song, I sing this mantra.
It is you. It is yours.
O Vallabha! Beloved !
Beloved of the gopis,
Beloved of every soul ! Beloved of my soul!
You have come, O enchanter of Eros,
to tell me you have always been here,
present in the mantra.
I have reached the eighteenth syllable,
The charama shloka:
I throw my soul into the circle of flames,
the Rasa mandala of the mantra.
I have reached the fifth segment,
the final chapter, the brahma muhurta;
the dance is over and I must go home,
I must await again the call of your flute.
Jagat - Tue, 05 Jul 2005 16:35:07 +0530
The idea came to me that the five segments of the Gopala mantra could be seen in correspondence to the Rasa Panchadhyaya. It actually works fairly well.
- Krishna = first chapter. Krishna calls.
- Govinda = Krishna leaves the gopis who then look for him. (vinda = search or find.)
- Gopi-jana = end of second and third chapters. The gopis meet Radha, their guru, under whose guidance they sing the song that will bring Krishna back to them. Like the Rasa Panchadhyaya, the gopis are central, i.e. in the middle. At the same time, they are the petals on the lotus of the yantra.
- Vallabha = tAsAm AvirabhUt sauriH smayamAna-mukhAmbujaH |
pItAmbara-dharaH sragvI sAkSAn-manmatha-manmathaH ||
- Svaha = the purnahuti of the last chapter. The yantra of the mantra or the altar of the fire sacrifice is identified with the Rasa mandala.
The eighteen syllables are also seen as corresponding to other eighteens, like the eighteen chapters of the Gita, i.e., ending with the charama shloka, sarva-dharmAn parityajya, etc.
The meanings given in the poem are based on the Gopala Tapini Upanishad.
anuraag - Tue, 05 Jul 2005 19:36:40 +0530
Certainly there is nama-kirtan and lila-kirtan in the spiritual world.
kathA gAnam! In the abode of Govinda, every word is a song!
UlUkhale saMbhRta taNDulAmz ca
saMghaTTayantyo musalaiH pramugdhAHgAyanti gopyo janit AnurAgA govinda dAmodara mAdhaveti
kAcit karAmbhoja puTe niSaNNaM
krIDAsukaM kiMzuka rakta tuNDaMadhyApayAmA sa saroruhAkSI govinda dAmodara mAdhaveti
grhe grhe gopa vadhU samUhaH
prati kSaNaM piJjara sArikANAmskhalad giraM vAcayituM pravRtto govinda dAmodara mAdhaveti
aGkAdhi ruDhaM zizu gopa gUDhaM
stanaM dhayantaM kamalaika kAntamsambodha yAmAsa mudA yazodA govinda dAmodara mAdhaveti
utthAya gopyo'para rAtrabhAge
smRtvA yazodA suta bAla kelImgAyanti procchair dadhi manthayantyo govinda dAmodara mAdhaveti
kvacit prabhAte dadhi pUrNa pAtre
nikSipya manthaM yuvatI mukundamAlokya gAnaM vividhaM karoti govinda dAmodara mAdhaveti
gopI kadA cinmaNi piJjarasthaMzukaM vaco vAcayituM pravRttA Ananda kanda vraja candra kRSNa
govinda dAmodara mAdhavetiGovinda-Damodara Stotram
Keshava - Wed, 06 Jul 2005 06:34:50 +0530
QUOTE(Jagat @ Jul 5 2005, 01:05 AM)
The idea came to me that the five segments of the Gopala mantra could be seen in correspondence to the Rasa Panchadhyaya. It actually works fairly well. [list]
I very much appreciate this post of yours.